Part 2 The course of the civil war between January 1949 and September 1949

On January 10 1949 the Huai Huai campaign of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) ends in a total defeat of the GMD army.
Document: 11-10-1948 The concept of operations for the Huai-Hai campaign
In November 1948 the CCP started the campaign to be able to push through from the Northeast of China to the Southwest in the direction of Shanghai.
Document: 31-03-1949 Outline plan for the Nanjing-Shanghai-Hangzhou campaign
The PLA is able to mobilize more than 5 million peasants to fight against the GMD. The prospect of owing their own piece of land after victory is the trump card of the CCP.
The consequences of this victory are that Tianjin
Document: 11-12-1948 The concept of operations for the Beijing - Tianjin campaign
and later on Beijing falls in the hands of the PLA. Fu Zuoyi, the GMD governor of Beijing, decides to negotiate with Lin Biao, a PLA general, to arrive at a peaceful regime change.
Document: 10-01-1949 Mao Zedong's response to Stalin's telegram from 6 January 1949
On January 31 1949 the seizure of Beijing is announced.

On January 14, 1949 Mao Zedong proposes 8 points to use as a basis for negotiation with the GMD government.
Document 14-01-1949 Mao Zedong "Statement on the present situation"
On April 1, 1949 Zhou Enlai leads formal peace talks with GMD representatives in Beijing. On April 15, 1949 the GMD rejects the proposals of the CCP and 6 days later the CCP takes the decision to cross the
Chang Jiang River
April 20, 1949 The PLA crosses Chang Jiang River
and to start an attack to conquer south China.
Document 21-04-1949 Mao Zedong "Order to the army for the country wide advance"
The push forward is very successful and at May 3 Hangzhou is in the hands of the PLA , on May 16 Wuhan, on May 22 Nanchang and on May 25 Shanghai. Jiang Jieshi decides to flee to Taiwan but later on, returns to
Retreat of the GMD Government in 1949
. On November 29 1949 he leaves the mainland but not after he executed GMD general
Yang Hucheng
Yang Hucheng (1893–1949)Former warlord later GMD general
, his family and loyal officers. In December 1936 Yang and
Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001) He spent over fifty years under house arrest
held Jiang hostage to force him in the United Front against the Japanese. See Part 1.

Also in other regions of China the PLA is able to drive back and to eliminate GMD troops. In July 1949 the PLA is winning in Hunan, Jiangxi and in August in Lanzhou. The next month Gansu and Qinghai fall in the hands of the communists. The GMD troops that are still fighting are geographically spread across the south, the southwest and Taiwan. They are no longer capable to coordinate their actions. Most of the generals of the GMD no longer possesses the political will and the military power to withstand the PLA forces. Many of them defect to the PLA, along with them the remains of their soldiers. Mao Zedong states "In the future, there will probably be many more war prisoners [coming from] our capture of the cities. Thus, in every district and every troop, the training of war prisoners must be well organized. In principle, no prisoner will be let go. Most of them will be filled into our troops and some will participate in the production in the rear front. The human resources for our troops to defeat Jiang mainly come from prisoners; this must be brought home to the whole party.51"
Cited in Westad Odd Arne (2003). Decisive encounters:the Chinese civil war, 1946-1950. Page 201. The PLA did not dare release them to wander the country-side as unemployed bandits.

Table 1 shows the military strength of the PLA and the GMD in September 1949.

map of civil war February 1949

Civil war situation February 1949

map of civil war October 1949

Civil war situation on October 1949

map of civil war December 1949

Civil war situation on December 1949

The first steps to establish cooperation between the CCP and other political parties