Article 10 of the Common Program
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Article 10 of the Common Program

The armed forces of the People's Republic of China, namely, the People's Liberation Army, the people's public security forces and the people's police belong to the people.
It is the task of these armed forces to defend the independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of China, and to defend the revolutionary gains and all legitimate rights and interests of the Chinese people.
The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China shall endeavour to consolidate and strengthen the people's armed forces, so as to enable them to accomplish their tasks effectively.


The new authorities have two important tasks in 1949, first to consolidate military control in all regions and second to obtain political control. In the Common Program, four articles are dealing with public security. Article 7 deals with the suppression of counterrevolutionaries. Article 23 describes the importance of a people’s militia to maintain local order. Article 17 abolishes all oppressive laws of the GMD. The fourth is Article 18 deals with the combat against corruption.
To coordinate all these required actions, the Central Political Juridical Commission is founded, it controls the Public Security Ministry, the Interior Ministry, the Justice Ministry. Members of this commission are Dong Biwu, Luo Ruiqing, Kang Sheng, and Peng Zhen. The commission did not control the internal intelligence and security section. The Secretariat of the CCP controls this section and has five departments: Organization, Espionage, Counterespionage, Intelligence, and Training. The task of the police is divided into 2 duties, one secret, the other public. The secret task involves counter-espionage, infiltration, and checking the loyalty of CCP cadres. "In reviewing the police or security work during the year 1950, Lo Jui-ching, Minister of Public Security, reported that during the first 10 months of 1950, 664 special service cases and 9 cases of international espionage had been unearthed, and 13,812 special agents had been arrested in the whole country, and that a large number of these agents had been severely suppressed."
Wei Henri (1955). Courts and police in communist China to 1952. Page 29
The open task is based upon laws and directives; however, it also involves the prevention of anti-communist movements and the suppression of counterrevolutionaries. The distinction between these 2 tasks is arbitrary. After the census of 1953, the results of the census are used to control and organize the people. Each family has a census book, in which names, sex, occupation, family status, political background, and personal contacts are registered. Public security committees compromised of 3 to 11 members of the CCP, control "All those who had served for the Nationalist Government, Kuomintang members, correspondents, lawyers, doctors, and the so-called rich land owners would be classified as special census and are to be visited a few times a day."
Yee Frank S. H. (1957). Chinese communist police and courts. Page 86
"A regulation from 1952 mentions the existence of a complete network of police stations and substations in the Northern Chinese Administrative Region.118 Most of the small, Japanese-style ‘police boxes’ at the neighborhood level were expanded into precinct police stations which also performed some of the civil administrative duties of the former demarchs and phylarchs.119"
Kuiken Cornelis Jan (1992). The Rise and Fall of the First Communist Chinese Police State 1931-1969. Page 33
The shortage of trained cadres compels the administration to employ former GMD officers (about 50% to 60%), the rest are former PLA soldiers. A division of 10. 000 military police are dispatched to each province.
Kuiken (1992) remarks "So the Chinese Communists, to compensate the insufficiency of the police system during the early 1950s, set up auxiliary security systems of three different models: civilian Japanese-style neighborhood groups in those few major cities where the Japanese occupation had left an adequate infrastructure; paramilitary Jiangxi-style militias under PLA control in the countryside; and permanent vigilante groups to replace the different ad hoc campaign organizations elsewhere."
Kuiken (1992). The Rise and Fall. Page 35
The militias, together with the military police, were the main enforcers of public security during the several campaigns between 1949-1952.
Kuiken (1992) concludes "Although the Communist police apparat was in name a separate organization, it was in practice subordinated to the PLA. Furthermore, the majority of the armed police forces consisted of former regular PLA troops. The outcome was a very violent garrison-style police regime without a detailed legal fundament. It only subsided after the armistice in Korea in 1953."
Kuiken (1992). Page 39
Nathan (1997) observes that the CCP bureaucracy effectively exerted its political control over the Ministry of Public Security and did not become a police state "In a police state, the political police become a separate organization, more powerful than the regular police, the military, or the party organization. They operate without legal restriction, serve as the primary pillar of the regime, and have direct access to the leader.... China had no similar organization. The Party never lost political control over the Ministry of Public Security, and its minister never ranked among the top figures of the regime."
Nathan Andrew J. (1997). China’s Transition. Page 45

See for further information on army Chapter 3

1954 Poster A tribute to the Chinese People's Liberation Army that defends the nation's borders

Wei Henri (1955). Courts and police in communist China to 1952. Page 29 Back
Yee Frank S. H. (1957). Chinese communist police and courts. Page 86 Back
Kuiken Cornelis Jan (1992). The Rise and Fall of the First Communist Chinese Police State 1931-1969. Page 33 Back
Kuiken (1992). The Rise and Fall. Page 35 Back
Kuiken (1992). Page 39 Back
Nathan Andrew J. (1997). China’s Transition. Page 45 Back