Article 41 of the Common Program
Text
Article 41 of the Common Program

The culture and education of the People's Republic of China shall be New Democratic -national, scientific and popular. The main tasks of the People's Government in cultural and educational work shall be the raising of the cultural level of the people, the training of personnel for national construction work, the eradicating of feudal, comprador and fascist ideology and the developing of the ideology of service to the people.

In 1949, the new government inherited 3 education models. One was based on the GMD program, which was a mixture of traditional schooling and western ideas (following different university models from especially Germany, France, and the United States). The second model was based on the experience of the CCP in the Jiangxi Soviet period (1931–1934), and the Yan’an era (1936–1945), with a focus on the principle of the mass line and practicality. The third example is based on SU education system in the Northeast of China, which advocated the importance of political education as the main goal for schools. In this mix ‘Chinese nationalism, science, and popular’ are also added. The monopoly of power by the CCP is a constant factor in teaching.

At the First National Conference on Education (23-31 December 1949), the vice minister of Education,
Qian Junrui
Qian Junrui (1908-1985) vice minister of education. (1951) Director of Higher Education from 1949 to 1953. Economist In 1920's he went to Japan to study the new educational practices
,pointed out the seven challenges facing the reform and development of education in PRC, namely: (1) building a new democratic system of education by absorbing the useful experiences of the old society and borrowing from the Soviet Union experience; (2) establishing the People’s Universities to cultivate professionals and fast middle schools to cultivate intellectuals; (3) conducting literacy movements across whole country; (4) improving the quality of education in the old liberated areas; (5) uniting and reforming the thinking of intellectuals in the old liberated areas; (6) reforming the old educational system gradually and accumulating experiences; (7) preserving and restructuring private schools administrated by Chinese governments.
Yang Ming & Ni Hao (2018). Educational Governance in China. Page 21
Tsang (2000) formulates 3 dilemmas political leaders are confronted with in reforming education. 1) Education for political/ideological development versus education for economic development. (see Article 43) 2) Education for social equality versus education for efficiency. (see Article 47) 3) Enlisting intellectuals and high-skilled personnel in socialist development versus treating them as antagonists and suppressing them. (see Article 46)
Tsang Mun C. (2000). Education and national development in China since 1949: oscillating policies and enduring dilemmas. Page 4
Teng (2005) notices that a two-track system in education can be traced back to the GMD government. The government finances urban schools, the local community in rural areas, finances village schools. In 1951, (Decision on the Reform of the Education System) the new regime validates this system. "This principle of “selective development” in the education policy meant that rural people had to take up the responsibility of educating their children. Educational expenditures had to be raised and maintained by the rural masses, while the city residents were subsidised for the same needs and desires."
Teng Margaret Fu (2005). Unequal Primary Education Opportunities in Rural and Urban China. Page 2
New education system 1951

Source: Wang Charles K. (1955). The control of teachers in communist china. A socio-political study. Page 28

Source:Oates John Vincent (1983). Remin jiaoyu - People's education: conflict and change in Chinese education 1950 to 1958. Page 395

U (2004) describes the situation in Shanghai where the local authorities are forced to recruit "...large numbers of people whom it regarded as politically suspicious. Among the newcomers, a considerable number had held important positions in the Nationalist regime; some had recently been fired from their jobs because of economic, sexual, or other wrongdoing; and others were former capitalists, landlords, or convicts forced into a different way of life by social and political change."
U Eddy (2004). The Hiring of Rejects Teacher Recruitment and Crises of Socialism in the Early PRC Years. Page 47
This shortage of reliable teachers is partly caused by the career choice of young graduates. Central ministries, provincial agencies, local governments, factories, and mines are more successful than schools in attracting college graduates. Additionally, the PLA recruits young graduates to become political instructors, propaganda officers, and military journalists. One way of solving the shortage problem is the promotion of primary school teachers to the secondary level. The other way is the recruitment of unemployed managers, brokers, shop owners, and white-collar workers who were fired during the sanfan campaign. Many of them had graduated junior high school and were teacher candidates for primary and secondary schools, despite their backgrounds.The other group of recruited teachers are former staff members and officials who came from the abolished regional party and state organs. Those new teachers were mostly not highly qualified and had often health problems. In the early years after the overtake in Shanghai, most secondary schools were still private owned and they could still freely hire personnel.
In the period 1950-1952, the total government expenditure on education is 6,43% of the total budget, and this is 1,53% of the national income. In the period of the first 5 year plan (1953-1957), the total government expenditure on education grows to 6,92%, this is 2,3% of the national income.
Tsang Mun C. (2000). Education and national development. Page 13
Number of students 1950-1954
Sources: Pepper Suzanne (1996). Radicalism and education reform in 20th-century China The search for an ideal development model. Pages 200-201
Oates John Vincent (1983). Remin jiaoyu - People's education: conflict and change in Chinese education 1950 to 1958. Page 395
*Worker peasant short course middle school

Source: Pepper Suzanne (1996). Radicalism and education reform in 20th-century China The search for an ideal development model. Page 201

This stacked column chart shows clearly the percentage decrease in fine arts and the percentage increase in engineering and agriculture in a very brief period.

Source: Pepper Suzanne (1996). Radicalism and education reform in 20th-century China The search for an ideal development model. Page 214
% of all students

This chart shows the slowly rise in the particpation of sons and daughters of workers and peasants in tertiary education.
Yang Ming & Ni Hao (2018). Educational Governance in China. Page 21 [↩]
Tsang Mun C. (2000). Education and national development in China since 1949: oscillating policies and enduring dilemmas. Page 4 [↩]
Teng Margaret Fu (2005). Unequal Primary Education Opportunities in Rural and Urban China. Page 2 [↩]
U Eddy (2004). The Hiring of Rejects Teacher Recruitment and Crises of Socialism in the Early PRC Years. Page 47 [↩]
Tsang Mun C. (2000). Education and national development. Page 13 [↩]

Meetings ....

23-12-1949 - 31-12-1949: First National Education Conference

01-06-1950 - 08-06-1950: First National Higher Education Conference

June 1953: Second National Education Conference