Article 48 of the Common Program
Text
Article 48 of the Common Program

National physical culture shall be promoted. Public health and medical work shall be expanded and attention shall be paid to the protection of the health of mothers, infants and children.


With the help from League of Nations health reformers, the GMD government started in the 1930’s to build a nationwide network of medical institutions in urban and rural areas. After 1949 the medical organization is modeled after the Soviet system with its emphasis on constructing urban hospitals, industrial clinics, trade union sanatoria and techni- cally advanced central medical research institutes. AnElissa (1980) remarks "While many Chinese economic and political decisions in the early 1950s emphasized industrial and urban development in an attempt to achieve Stalin's successes in rapid state-planned industrialization, Chinese national medical policies continued simultaneously to develop many of the organizational experiments started by Chinese medical reformers and administrators in the 1930s. As a consequence, Soviet impact on Chinese medical organization appears to have influenced only selected aspects of Chinese central and urban medical institutions: the development of specialized central research institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Medicine, the development of urban industrial workers' clinics and sanatoria, and the Communist Party's manoeuvres to gain political control over medical professionals by reorganizing their associations, journals, teaching curricula, research institutes and health institutions at all levels.57 "
AnElissa Lucas (1980). Changing Medical Models in China: Organizational Options or Obstacles? Page 482
In 1952 the national health policy can be described as priority for the needs of workers, peasants and soldiers, prevention, unity of Chinese and Western medicines and the combination of health work with mass movements. In 1952 two health insurances are introduced. One, which covers all government employees, college students and staff, and employees in political parties and mass organizations. This insurance is subsidized with governmental assets devoted special to this purpose. (See Article 2 for restriction of mobility) The other one is designated for all workers employed by state-owned enterprises. This is funded with contribution of the firms. See also Article 32 Peasants have to pay for their medical care on a fee-for-service basis. As soon as the agricultural collectivization starts cooperative health care is introduced. Yet the provision of rural medical services is below par.

Patriotic Public Health Movement....

Health campaigns....

One of the most outstanding health campaign is the schistosomiasis health campaign. The disease affected 10.6 million people with another 100 million at risk in thre southern part of China. Schistosomiasis threatens the productivity of farmland, labor and capital (draft animals). Based on reasons of military and economic security, the new Communist regime designated the campaign as a political, rather than a health campaign and promoted it as one of its earliest efforts at transformation of the rural environment. Although the campaign was hindered by lack of funding, material resources, technical and medical skills, and the recalcitrance of the putative participants - both villagers and local cadre; the Party was still able to use the campaign to realize beneficial goals and build positive connections at the bottom level. To understand the complex dynamics of resistance, assimilation, and attempts to assert authority played out against a background of impoverished resources and power struggles within the new regime
Gross Miriam Dara (2010). Chasing snails : anti- schistosomiasis campaigns in the People's Republic of China. Pages xvi-xvii.
see also Article 2 The new regime can rely on personnel, infrastructure and knowledge form the GMD administration. The CCP faces several problems in combatting the desease. Most doctors have employment in the cities and are reluctant to work in inhospitable rural areas. The inhabitants of the newly ‘liberated’areas have little trust in the new government. During the Sanfan (see Article 18) the local health services get disintegrated. "The Chinese government saw medicine as one of the easiest ways to demonstrate the scientific nature of CCP rule that would guide the population to a new scientific socialist future. This future was always juxtaposed against the backwards, superstitious past that had supposedly remained unchanged for the last 5,000 years. "
Gross (2010). Chasing snails. Page 478
Between 1949 and 1954 the number of research papers on schistosomiasis nearly doubled over what it had been in the previous 40 years.
Berry-Cabán notices "Some of this research was of the standard fare: testing various molluscicides, from copper sulfate to Paris green and DDT; testing various antimony drugs for their therapeutic effects; surveying reservoir hosts; and searching for more reliable diagnostic methods. However, other aspects of this research such as finding methods of killing schistosome eggs in feces stored for fertilizers and testing native herbal drugs for their therapeutic and molluscicidal effects had a uniquely Chinese flavor. Berry-Cabán Cristóbal S. (2007). Return of the God of Plague: Schistosomiasis in China. Page 48
At the end of the 1950’s, despite all difficulties, the endemic disease is to some extent eliminated. Treatment of the desease is successful, prevention of the desease not. True elimination occurs for most places during the late seventies and eighties.

Anti Drug campaign....

In December 1952 the People's Republic of China declares to be a ‘drug-free nation’.
"On 18 December the CCPCC issued Luo Ruiqing’s ‘Concluding Report on the Nationwide Campaign to Eradicate Drugs’, marking an end to the campaign. During the campaign, police commentators assert that 345,463 drug users were registered, 82,056 people were arrested, 880 were executed and the balance punished with life imprisonment, fixed-term imprisonment, reform through labour or control,with a small number released" Biddulph Sarah (2007). Legal reform and administrative detention powers in China. Page 80
From 1950 onwards an anti-drug campaign is held. On September 12, 1950 a directive states a strict prohibation of drug taking.
"During the initial phase of drug prohibition underthc PRC, several major national and regional laws and decrees were issued. These included the 1949 Temporary Measures on Prohibiting Opium and Other Narcotic Drugs in the Huabei Region, the 1949 Temporary Measures on Prohibiting Opium Smoking in Suiyuan Province. The 1950 Decree on Banning Opium issued by the Executive Administrativc Ministry, the 1950 Measures on Completely Eradicating Opium issued by the Southwestern Military Government Committee, the 1951 Measures of Eradicating Opium Smoking in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the 1952 Directive on Prohibiting Opium and Other Narcotic Drugs issued by the Northeastcm People’s Government. Lu Hong, Miethe Terance D.& Liang Bin (2016). China's Drug Practices and Policies: Regulating Controlled Substances in a Global Context. Page 89
Trade unions, mass organizations and the CCP hold large education forums and anti-drug gatherings. During these rallies drug users are publicly shamed (and subject to detention for coercive rehabilitation) and drug traffickers sentenced. Offenders, who turn themselves in, confess and show remorse, are treated leniently. Persistent offenders (e.g. drug kingpins and drug lords) are confronted with economic sanctions (fines, confiscating of properties) or imprisonment or death penalty. These anti-drug campaign is mainly carried out in urban regions. In one area, the southwest of China, the major drug-producing region the campaign starts in 1956. The production of drugs in the southwest part of China is located in isolated and mountainous regions occupied by minorities. Zhou (1999) remarks "The authorities clearly realized that in some areas, opium was still the main source of income for many ordinary households. Without full control of that area and without replacing poppies with crops, the Communists knew that conducting opium suppression would have provoked strong resistance, even riots ,…"
Zhou Yongming (1999). Anti-drug Crusades in Twentieth-century China: Nationalism, History, and State Building. Rowman & Littlefield. Page 161.
In some areas an allowance as compensation for the lost income is paid, in some cases debtors are allowed to grow poppy untill they have paid of their debts. Sometimes even compensation is paid for loss of income for former employees of the opium traffickers.
Fortmann Richard (1976).The Politics of Drug Addiction: A Comparison of United States and Chinese Drug Policies since 1949. Pages 209-210
Bale (2017) states "In reality, however, the situation was much more complicated and variegated, since both the GMD and the Communist regimes - like later Qing Dynasty rulers and various regional warlords - vacillated between adopting harsh anti-opium rhetoric and periodic eradication campaigns, on the one hand, and secretly regulating and taxing the domestic production and sale of opium, which provided them with an important source of revenue in lean times, on the other."
Bale Jeffrey M. (2017). The Darkest Sides of Politics, II: State Terrorism, “Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Religious Extremism, and Organized Crime. Note 46

Birth control...

The new government starts almost immediately with health campaigns, giving information about improvement of hygiene. The administration takes measures to limit the effects of natural disasters (floods and droughts resulting in famines) by an effective central administration, improved flood control, transport, food distribution, and health services. These actions cause a lower rate of death and mortality rates and growth of the population. (The birthrate is between 1949 and 1954 annually more than 37‰. in 1949 in Guangzhou the birthrate was 27 per thousand, at the end of 1954 it had risen to 44 per thousand population)
Birth and Death Rates in China, 1949 to 1984
Source: Riley Nancy E. (2004). China’s Population: New Trends and Challenges. Population Bulletin, 59,2.Page 6

Child mortality is also caused by incapable midwives. "In the early 1950s, the new Communist regime in China endowed rural women who occasionally attended births with new techniques as well as political and social identities. The Party viewed these women as old-style practitioners whose childbirth techniques needed to be improved, as newly liberated women whose political consciousness needed to be raised, and as traditional women in an agricultural society whose habitual behaviours needed to be disciplined. Chinese medical classics portrayed these traditional rural midwives as ignorant, coarse, perverse and dangerous; "
Fang Xiaoping (2007). Bamboo Steamers and Red Flags: Building Discipline and Collegiality among China’s Traditional Rural Midwives in the 1950's. Page 2
At the end of 1951 the Ministry of Health declares that there should be at least one trained midwife per district, especially in rural areas midwifery is quite random, the distribution is uneven and the quality often low. Training programmes of two weeks are started for those with the right political background (oppressed and/or exploited). "...the two-week format proved to be the most popular as it enabled the greatest number of traditional rural midwives to be trained within the shortest time, maximizing the highly limited budget allocated for this purpose by the provincial department of public health "
Fang Xiaoping (2007). Bamboo Steamers and Red Flags. Page 6
On September 16, 1949 Mao Zedong speaks out about birth control: "Each time the Chinese people overthrew a feudal dynasty it was because of the oppression and exploitation of the people by that feudal dynasty, and not because of any over-population… It is a very good thing that China has a big population. Even if China’s population multiplies many times, she is fully capable of finding a solution; the solution is production. The absurd argument of Western bourgeois economists like Malthus 3 that increases in food cannot keep pace with increases in population was not only thoroughly refuted in theory by Marxists long ago, but has also been completely exploded by the realities in the Soviet Union and the Liberated Areas of China after their revolutions."
Mao Zedong bankruptcy of idealist conception of history 16 september 1949
Population development in the cities, 1949-1998
Source: Wu Yuping (2004). "Die zukünftige demographische Alterung und das Problem der Altersversorgung in China unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Metropole Shanghai und der Provinz Gansu". Page 27

Mao Zedong follows with his statement the SU, which favours an ‘anti-Malthusian’ viewpoint. A characteristic point of view is ‘strength lies in numbers’. The People’s Daily hails the 600 million as the most precious of all the categories of capital
"Six Hundred Million People - A Great Strength for Socialist Construction of Our Country." Renmin ribao (People's Daily). November 1, 1954 Beijing.
A second reason for this pro-natalist opinion lies in the agriculture need for numerous children to uphold ancestor worship and to facilitate land cultivation.
"An ancient Chinese peasant proverb says: If you are planning for one year, sow grain; if you are planning for ten years, plant trees; but when you are planning for a hundred years, grow men."
In contrast to the SU a pro-natalist policy is not applied. There are no ‘Orders of the Glory of Motherhood’, but there are likewise no institution for birth control.
The CCP had forbidden abortion between 1931-1948 despite liberal marriage laws experiments in this period. See Article 6 A reason for this attitude is to offset the effects of disease, infant mortality, and high death rates in the base areas during the Japanese war and the civil war. At the same time, the party had encouraged young people to delay marriage and childbirth so that they could devote all their energies to the work of the revolution. In reality the CCP maintains a two-track policy—allowing urban, educated women to practice birth control while encouraging childbearing among peasant women.
Population development in rural areas, 1949-1998
Source: Wu Yuping (2004). "Die zukünftige demographische Alterung und das Problem der Altersversorgung in China unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Metropole Shanghai und der Provinz Gansu". Page 28

"In April 1950 rules for army and government personnel in the Beijing region made abortion contingent on medical indications, plus the written consent of husbands, superiors and doctors. …Moreover, all cadres in central government and Party organs had to obtain the personal endorsement of the Minister of Health himself."
Scharping Thomas (2013). Birth Control in China 1949-2000: Population Policy and Demographic Development. Pages 30-31
A third reason that can be mentioned is the fact that healtcare is "Dominated by Western-trained medical professionals inclined by tradition and training to be conservative on contraception, the ministry (of health) drew up regulations that imposed severe restrictions on access to contraception, abortion, and sterilization."
White Tyrene (2018). China's Longest Campaign: Birth Planning in the People's Republic, 1949–2005. Page 22
In May 1952 the Ministry of Health issues a regulation which stipulates the conditions for abortion: In cases of severe illness or threat to the woman. In addition, no woman was eligible for sterilization unless she was thirty-five years old, had six or more children, and had one child aged 10 or above. The import of contraceptives is forbidden in January 1953. This policy causes major irritation among women. "...,women in the party’s senior ranks began to press for a change in policy, linking access to birth control to the larger movement for women’s liberation that was already under way."
White (2018). China's Longest Campaign . Page 23
Their plea is heard by the (party) leaders (in particular Deng Xiaoping, Liu Shaoqi and
Shao Lizi
Shao Lizi (1882-1967) Scholar and politician
) and in July 1954 the ban on contraceptives is lifted and the promotion of birth control starts. But it is not only this plea that makes this change possibly. The economic reality also plays an important role. "By 1953, it became clear to many Chinese leaders that the country’s large population was directly contributing to the ongoing food shortages. Although the government maintained that this was untrue, an editorial published in April in People’s Daily declared that the problem of food scarcity would continue due to the increasing demands of a growing population, bringing the issue to widespread public attention for the first time. In this context, Mao and other high-ranking party leaders began to acknowledge the need for birth control measures, though these discussions happened behind closed doors.""
Craffey Maya (2018). Maternal Health and the Relaxation of the One-Child Policy in China, 2004-2015. Page 19
White (2018) notices "In practice, birth control remained extremely controversial, medical personnel remained generally hostile to disseminating information, cadres delayed giving the necessary approvals, and contraceptives were extremely scarce and of poor quality; abortion and sterilization remained the primary methods of birth control. In short, access for many people was more theoretical than real."
White (2018). Pages 25-26

Sport...

In april 1917 Mao Zedong stated Our nation is wanting in strength. The military spirit has not been encouraged; The physical condition of the population deteriorates daily. This is an extremely disturbing phenomenon.
Mao Zedong, “A Study of Physical Education”
In the Chinese context the term ‘Tiyu’ (体育) is often used instead of sport. 'Tiyu' also includes general fitness, traditional exercise and martial arts (e.g., taijiquan and wushu), chess, folk dance, competitive and non-competitive paramilitary activities, collective games, and various kinds of broadcast calisthenics.
Shuman Amanda G. (2014). The politics of socialist athletics in the People’s Republic of China, 1949-1966. Page 4. Broadcast calisthenics are sets of exercises broadcast on loudspeakers and designed for ordinary people to perform on a routine basis. Page 72
At the All-China Sport and Physical Education Congress held on 26-27 October 1949, Zhu De, vice-chairman of the Communist Party, explained: "Sport and physical education is an important part of education and health. The central government must understand this. Sport should serve the people, serve national defense and serve the purpose of improving people’s health. Students, farmers, workers, soldiers, citizens should all participate in physical exercise and sports activities.16"
Cited in Lu Zhouxiang, Fan Hong ( 2013). Sport and Nationalism in China Routledge. Page 80
Only after the more or less failed participation of the 1952 Helsinki Olympic Games (See Article 11 note 62) a separate ministry level sports commission is established. It shall have equal status to that of others, such as the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Finance, He Long becomes the head. Having seen the results of the Soviet Union on the Olympic Games
Soviet Union ended on the 2nd rank, after the US with 71 medals, 22 gold, 30 silver and 19 bronze
Rong Gaotang
Rong Gaotang (1912-2006) Vice President of the All-China Sports Federation
proposes "..that China should adopt the model of the Soviet Union to develop a sports policy and a centralised management system to meet the country’s political and diplomatic requirements. … The ACSF (All China Sport Federation) is only a semi-governmental organisation and it does not have the power to lead the development of sport and physical education in China. Rong argued that Chinese sport policy and practice should follow the model of the Soviet Union as it had been proved to be the most successful one in the world."
Xu Guoqi (2008). Olympic Dreams China and Sports 1895–2008. Page 77
Shortly after these proposals, the CCP instructs Rong Gaotang: 1) Begin the preparation of the structure of the new Ministry of Sport; 2) Begin to recruit professional full time athletes from the army and society; 3) Start to build an athletic stadium; 4) Begin to establish sports institutes; 5) Hold a National Games next year (1953).
Fan Wei , Fan Hong & Lu Zhouxiang (2010) Chinese State Sports Policy: Pre- and Post-Beijing 2008. Page 2383. 1st National Games is only being held in Beijing in 1959
Besides this founding of a sports commission in June 1952, also other measurements are taken, the magazine issue of Xin Tiyu
25 to 50 percent of each monthly issue in the early 1950s to topics such as the structure of the Soviet system, Soviet tiyu theory, Soviet training methods, and successful Soviet athletes. "Targeting cadres and teachers in"physical education, athletes, and sports enthusiasts in the army, factories, and schools, this magazine published news stories about sporting events in the PRC, featured photographs of folk exercises, introduced athletics in other communist countries, and set up such columns as “exchange of pedagogies of physical education,” “short stories,” and “science of exercise and physiology.”" Lu Xiaoning (2011). Promote physical culture and sport, Improve the people’s constitution. Page 179
in July 1950 and the start of broadcast calisthenics in late 1951. China sends a delegation to observe the 1st Asian Games from 4 to 11 March 1951. The First National Minority Nationalities Traditional Sports Games are held in Tianjin on November 8-12, 1953 with 13 nationalities and 395 athletes. Other mass tiyu activities are held "...particularly useful for rallying behind national and patriotic goals that would help consolidate the new regime’s power, and no truer was this than for the Resist America Aid Korea campaign that began following China’s entry into the KoreanWar in October 1950"
Shuman (2014). The politics of socialist athletics. Page 68
The National Athletic team is established in 1953; the National Table Tennis, Swimming, Badminton teams in 1954; the National Gymnastics team in 1955.
In his speech of june 30, 1953 for an audience of the Youth League, Mao Zedong explains: "Now we must ensure that everybody is in good health; we must ensure that workers, peasants, soldiers, students, and cadres are all in good health. Of course, being in good health doesn't necessarily mean that one will study well; studying [well] requires certain methods…. On the one hand there is study, on the other recreation, rest, and sleep; both aspects must be taken into full consideration. Young workers, young peasants, and young soldiers study as they work; for them, too, work and study [on the one hand] and recreation, rest, and sleep [on the other] must both be taken into full consideration. Both ends must be firmly grasped. Studying and work must be firmly grasped, but sleep, rest, and recreation must be firmly grasped also. In the past we only took hold of one end firmly, and we didn't take a firm hold on the other end, or else didn't take hold of it at all. Now we must develop some [programs for] recreation; there must be time and facilities [for recreation]. At this end too, we must take a firm hold. The Central Committee of the Party has already decided to reduce the number of meetings and the time [required] for study; you must supervise the implementation [of this decision]. If there are people who don't carry it out, [an explanation] should be demanded of them."
30-06-1953 Mao Zedong Speech on the Youth League
In November 1953 the authors of a report of the China National Sport Commission still complain that …many cadres not only did not understand the importance of sports but “have even ignored sports.”43
Xu Guoqi (2008). Olympic Dreams. Page 48
Partly the reason for this is Nevertheless, tiyu in this transitional period was far more complex than labels of “new” and “old” indicate because it was built on legacies of the past, plans for the future, modeled on the Soviet system, and was directed by Communist revolutionaries, a variety of experts from the earlier Republican period, and a handful of Soviet tiyu specialists. ...Tiyu workers, experts, professors, and athletes who remained on the mainland after 1949 also played vital roles in the development of “new” tiyu, including training the next generation of athletes and leaders. Some became or remained leaders in national tiyu organizations. In other words, so-called “new” tiyu in the early 1950s retained some of the characteristics of “old” tiyu.
Shuman (2014). The politics of socialist athletics. Pages 28-30
In the eyes of some Party leaders the "old" tiyu experts are seen as less trustworthy than fellow cadres and thus requiring supervision.

Sport is considered as a weapon against American imperialism, in the 30’s and 40’s the physical culture is based on the principles of American methods.
Feng Wenbin
Feng Wenbin (1911-1997) President of the All-China Sports Federation
states The American imperialists spread their sport not because they were concerned about the health of the Chinese people, but because sport was an ideal tool of cultural imperialism. The American imperialists emphasised to the Chinese people that American sports equipment is the best, their athletes are the fastest and their basketball team is the top one...in the world.
cited in Hwang Dong-jhy (2002). Sport, Imperialism and Postcolonialism: A Critical Analysis of Sport in China 1860-1993. Page 116
Likewise sport is seen as a weapon against feudalist martial arts. It has to be of scientific character and oppose feudal and superstitious ideas. A particular case was the Chinese martial arts of Wusu, which was seen as a tool of the counter-revolutionaries “who had set up anti-revolutionary organizations which threatened the stability of society, taught young people to be thieves and rapists and provided shelter for the people’s enemies” . Fan’s argument agrees unconditionally with the government’s official claim that these Wusu organizations in the countryside and cities should be banned, and that Wusu groups in schools, factories and government departments should be reorganized by the Youth League and local governments.
Hwang (2002). Sport, Imperialism and Postcolonialism. Page 117

In August 1950 a sport delegation leaves for Moscow, back in Beijing they communicate their findings: the importance of everyone participating in exercise, as well as the necessity of having a large sports stadium with the capacity for 100,000 and an indoor sports arena with a capacity of 10,000.111 Such advice was taken seriously; a plan from the Beijing Municipal Education Bureau in mid-1952 proposed spending nearly 23 billion yuan to build or renovate sports stadiums, fields, and equipment for children and adults.112
Shuman (2014). Pages 61-62
On December 20, 1950 the first Soviet Union sport delegation visits the PRC. During their stay the delegation visits 8 cities and 14 meetings are held with Chinese officials. The development of Chinese sports programs and sports exchanges in the first half of the 1950s sought to fulfill the goals of the Common Program, while also adopting Soviet-inspired sports programs in China. PRC leaders wanted these state-sponsored sports programs to strengthen the masses of Chinese bodies and Chinese athletes for the purposes of national goals. However, they also envisioned Soviet-inspired sports programs as the correct path to becoming a socialist state, within the context of Soviet-led international socialism.
Shuman (2014). Page 16
Most elite athletes in the 1950s came from schools and universities, which were the first institutional settings for women's sport.

Numbers of athletes of national competitions Source: Dong Jinxia (2004). Women, Sport and Society in Modern China: Holding Up More Than Half the Sky. Page 29

On February 21, 1954 Zhou Enlai delivers a speech "Building physical fitness for the motherland" in which he defines sport as a political mission for national defence and the construction of the socialist country: The most urgent mission is to develop industry and the economy and consolidate national defence. This mission requires all of us to have strong bodies. We need modern technology to develop our industry. Modern technology cannot be operated without strong and healthy workers. Our people are not strong enough to be qualified workers. Furthermore, modern weapons, such as tanks and jet planes, also need strong and healthy operators. Thus, the GTO is not only designed for the improvement of an individual’s health, but also for national defence and the construction of a socialist country. It is a political mission.
Fan Hong & Lu Zhouxiang (2012) Representing the New China and the Sovietisation of Chinese sport (1949–1962). Page 9
Xu (2008) remarks "the modern physical culture so quickly accepted as tiyu was novel for its systematic” effort to link “individual strength, discipline, and health” with the military, industrial, and diplomatic “strength” of the national body.62 For the Chinese, tiyu not only conveyed a distinct sense of sports, but also the idea that through the forum of sports as public culture, they could articulate Chinese nationalism, the national identity of China, and even the meaning of being Chinese. "
Xu (2008). Olympic Dreams Page 28

This so called Labour Defence System is based on the Soviet Union “Ready for Labour and Defence” system. Hwang (2002) distinguishes five basic aspects of Chinese physical education "(i) the most basic was exercise—the core of the physical training programme. Participation in a varied set of exercises was viewed as preparation for all other aspects of physical education; (ii) physical education involved both games and dance which were included in the middle school programme; (iii) sports were seen as an extension of basic exercises with competition (iv) physical education involved training for labour and defence....(v) physical education involved complete patriotic and socialist education. "
Hwang (2002). Page 121
The Labour Defence System is largely confined to schools above middle school level and the upper school physical education programme, has always a military flavour. The National Defense Sports Society (NDSS) is established in 1952. The NDSS is a section of the "Sports Ministry". Its mission is to promote parachute jumping, shooting, camping, sailing, aero modeling, radio sports, motorcycling, aerodonetics and other military sports in the cities. A total of 163 sports grounds are built around the country to serve this goal. Parachute jump towers are given highest priority.
Lu Zhouxiang, Fan Hong (2013). Page 83
The improvement of the physical is not restricted to scholars and students in 1954 an instruction is issued ‘to Engage in Sports Activities during Breaks’ "Cadres in government departments at all levels were required to undertake physical exercise for ten minutes in the morning and afternoon during working days. In the same year, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions issued its ‘Instruction to Promote Sports in Industrial factories to improve workers health …"
Lu Zhouxiang, Fan Hong (2013). Page 82


Literature Notes Documents...

16-09-1949 Mao Zedong "Bankcruptcy of the idealist conception of histrory"
30-06-1953 Mao Zedong Speech on the Youth League
21-02-1954 Zhou Enlai Building physical fitness for the motherland
April 1912 Mao Zedong "A study on physical education"
26-10-1949 All-China Sport and Physical Education Congress 7-8-1950 The National Health Conference is held in Beijing 15-3-1951 Provisional regulations governing the management of hospitals and clinics. 18-2-1952 Nie Rongzhen reports to Zhou and Mao on biological warfare 8-3-1952 Zhou makes a statement protesting the US use of bacteriological weapons 14-3-1952 GAC establishes in Beijing the Central Committee of Diseases Prevention 7-4-1952 Chinese investigating commission on biological warfare in Korea reports 15-4-1952 CC “Directive on Eradication of Drug Epidemic” 15-4-1952 CC disease prevention campaign is to improve public health 20-6-1952 the All-China Federation of Physical Culture is established 27-6-1952 GAC free medical care for those working in government and non commercial organizations August 1952 National Drug Prohibition Work Meeting 1-12-1952 2nd National Health Conference 14-12-1952 MPS reveals figures on anti drug campaign 18-12-1952 End of the campaign to eradicate drugs 3-4-1953 Mao "Instruction on Leadership Work of Health Departments of Military Commissions" October 1953 PB meeting about public health 24-12-1953 3rd national health conference starts 28-12-1953 National health conference ends 4-6-1954 Mao decides to set up a Research Academy of TCM 30-6-1954 Mao talks on TCM December 1954 Meeting of the St C CC traditonal chinese medecine
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