Article 36 of the Common Program
Text
Article 36 of the Common Program

Communications: Railways and highways shall be swiftly restored and gradually extended. Rivers shall be dredged and water transportation expanded. Postal, telegraphic and telephone services shall be improved and developed.
Various communications facilities shall be built up and civil aviation established step by step according to plan.


Shi (2016) links the distibution of transport networks with the distribution of population "...and urban areas, denser in the eastern area as compared to western China: This pattern is partly restricted by natural conditions. But it also reflects the demand of economic activities and people. The railway transport network is composed of interconnected trunk lines, branch lines, connection lines, and railroad hubs. It centers at Beijing and the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway and Longhai Railway–Lanzhou–Xinjiang Railway (started in 1952) are the trunk lines. "
Shi Peijun, Xu Wei and Wan Jing’ai (2016). Natural Disaster System in China. Page 20
Source: Comtois Claude (1990). Transport and Territorial Development in China 1949–1985. Page 786

In the next parts, the emphasis lies on waterways, highways, and railways and their economic meaning. The distibution of the railway network is geographically unbalanced, the main connections are to be found in east and northeast China.
Source: 历史统计:金砖国家历年铁路营业里程比较(1838~2010)
"In fact, in 1949 about 60 per cent of the total 21,800 kilometres of railways (...) of different gauges and types were concentrated in Northeast China and along the coast. More specifically, 53.85 per cent of the provincial capitals had no rail connections with Beijing.4"
Comtois(1990). Transport. Page 784

© Elisabeth Köll (cartographic design: Matthew Sisk, GIF: Peter van Meel).
During the Civil War, the GMD regime and the Communist troops destroyed large sections of the railroad network. Particularly in the Northeast, almost 4000 miles were demolished. "Because repairs and repair attempts were undone by swift Communist counterattacks, the Nationalist government’s rehabilitation program was successful only south of the Yangzi River, a region without a Communist military presence at the time, where rehabilitation restoring lines damaged by the Japanese could take place without any external interference."
Köll Elisabeth (2019). Railroads and the transformation of China. Page 226 See also Document 17-12-1949 Chen Yun "Telegram to comrade Ma Yinchu"
After the founding of the PRC, the government starts with an ambitious plan to expand the railway network: Chengdu–Chongqing railway or Chengyu railway opened in 1952 and was the first railway to be built after the founding of the People's Republic of China.
The Litang–Zhanjiang railway or Lizhan railway was built from 1954 to 1955.
Yingtan–Xiamen railway or Yingxia railway was built between 1954 and 1957. The railway was intended to serve the dual purposes of national defense (Taiwan is opposite of Fujian) and regional development.
The Lancun−Yantai railway or Lanyan railway was built from 1953 to 1956.
The Xiaoshan–Ningbo railway or Xiaoyong railway was dismantled in 1938, rebuilt partly in 1953, and finished in 1959.
The Baoji–Chengdu railway or Baocheng railway was built from 1952 to 1954, but was opened in 1958.
The Lanzhou−Xinjiang railway or Lanxin railway started in 1952, completed in 1962, and opened in 1966.
Like in other sectors of the economy, the GMD and the CCP governments used Japanese engineers and technicians to rebuild and to expand the railroad network. In the first 5-year plan, 2500 miles of new railways are planned. To consolidate the central state power, and to integrate the interior and/or remote regions with new railroads was a main goal. Some of these plans were already made during the GMD administration because they were considered of strategic and economic importance.
Most of these new lines were built with the involvement of SU advisors and former GMD technicians and engineers. Many of the GMD employees were denounced as “counterrevolutionaries” in April 1951. To avoid discontinuity, the railroad administration became heavily connected and integrated in the military defense, and political indoctrination increased. Many demobilized PLA soldiers found work in the construction of railroads. In 1953, a special railroad army corps was founded to work in remote areas.
Kroll (2019) states: "The “outsourcing” of railroad construction to the PLA in many ways was a brilliant move because it allowed a riskier approach for the construction of new lines, while also providing the benefits of the disciplined work ethic of railroad soldiers and the mobility of the military. At the same time, the experiences of former tiedaobing on construction sites also demonstrated that certain issues related to railroad construction, such as negotiating land acquisitions, hiring local labor, and interacting with the local population, were not fundamentally different from the practices employed during the Republican period."
Köll (2019). Railroads. Pages 252-253

Most of the newly undertaken constructions had to be operated in inhospitable and dangerous conditions and environments. Therefore, the railroad workers earned several privileges, like free train tickets, free primary and middle school for their children, and higher wages. The lack of appropriate capital investments (In the 5-year plan transport, postal services, and telecommunications received only 19 percent of the investment funds) was compensated by focusing on the mass mobilization of workers.
Traincrew were mostly men, but on October 1, 1951 Li Shi, the first female engine driver graduated.
"In the following year, railroad work units across the country began to employ women in all aspects of railroad- related work, especially in the service sector as train conductors, station personnel, ticket sellers, and administrators." Kroll (2019). Page 250
Except Xinjiang and Tibet, a unified time standard is introduced. This made freight and passenger transport much easier than the five different times zones which existed before October 1949.
There were a huge variety of different locomotive types from the former foreign powers (France, UK, US, Japan and SU) usually in small quantities that had little in common. There was also a large fleet of standardised and very capable engines left by the Japanese. It was only natural that the latter were selected for continued production. Russian engineers gave technical assistance for the construction of locomotives based on SU models. "China made a conscious decision to continue with steam production long after the rest of the world’s locomotive builders had switched to diesel and electric traction. The reason was entirely practical. Traffic was increasing so rapidly that it wouldn’t have been possible to build diesels fast enough given the skills available in the Chinese workforce at the time. Steam locomotives were relatively low-tech and simple, they could be built in large quantities and ran on cheap and readily available coal."
Cotterill Duncan (2021). A Brief History of Standard Gauge Steam in China. http://www.railography.co.uk/info/cn_steam/profiles/history.htm
In 1950, locomotives based on US model (Mikado), now renamed as “Jiefang” (JF) were produced with materials that remained on hand after the war. In 1952, the locomotives were built with new parts and mass production began. Thus, it became the major model of freight steam locomotive for main line railways in China in the 1950s.

Chinese Changchun Railway (CCR)
Between 1897 and 1902, the Russian Empire built a railway line from Chita to Vladivostok and to Port Arthur (Dalian), then a leased ice-free port in China. In August 1945, the SU and GMD administration agreed to a joint control over the southern branch, this was now called the Changchun Railway. During the visit of Mao Zedong to Stalin, the issue over control was regulated in a treaty.
Document: 14-02-1950 Agreement on the Changchun railway. Port Arthur and Dalny. Document: 28-08-1952 Cable, Zhou Enlai to Chairman Mao [Zedong] and the Central Committee and 01-09-1952 Report, Zhou Enlai to Chairman Mao.
On 1 May 1950, the CCR was formally reestablished under joint USSR-PRC management. During Zhou Enlai’s visit to Stalin, in September 1952, there was announcement issued regarding the return of the Changchun Railway before December 31, 1952. It took another two and a half years before the takeover was completed "...the value of the fixed and liquid assets transferred without compensation was 2.28 billion yuan or US$600 million. A partial list of the CCR’s assets includes the following: 3,282.7 km of railroad lines, including the trunk lines from Manzhouli to Suifenhe and from Manzhouli to Dalian and Lushunkou; 880 locomotives, 10,200 trucks; repair facilities, power plants, telegraph offices, signaling and communications equipment; administrative buildings; and subsidiary enterprises, such as coal mines, tree farms and lumber yards. Associated facilities included 1.85 million square meters of housing; 121 hospitals, clinics, and epidemic prevention stations; 69 schools, 25 cultural centers and clubs, 322 “Red Corners” (entertainment rooms); as well as shops and other commercial enterprises.32"
Zhang Shengfa (2010). Changchun Railway to China and Its Impact on Sino-Soviet Relations. Pages 70-71
The Changchun Railway played an important role in the development of Northeast China and as supply line during the Korean War.
Document: 11-07-1950 Telegram from the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee to Gao Gang. "Cargo traffic intensified as well. The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 was an important reason for a sharp increase of international cargo on the railway line. Since the second half of 1950, Manzhouli became the major hub for military equipment shipments from the USSR and its allies to the Korean peninsula.29" Urbansky Sören (2012). A Very Orderly Friendship: The Sino-Soviet Border under the Alliance Regime, 1950-1960. Page 7.
Comtois remarks there were "...80,768 kilometres of highways at the time of liberation in all of China. Moreover, the highway system was characterized by roads with little or no surfacing and by bridges and ferries of low capacity.5 Clearly, they were planned not to compete with the railways but to supplement them."
Comtois(1990). Transport. Page 784
Maintenance, repair and building had no priority, local authorities had to mobilize workers and raise funds.
See for example Flower John M. (2004). A Road Is Made: Roads, Temples, and Historical Memory in Ya'an County, Sichuan.
Source:CIA (1960) Economic intelligence report. Highway transport in communist China
Most of the highways are located in the eastern coastal provinces. The highway network in Xinjiang was oriented towards the SU. Most roads are intended to provide short-haul connections with railroads and water networks, however, most of them are of poor quality. Many of them are not suitable for modern vehicles and can not be used all year around. The expansion of the highway network has economic and strategic objectives. Between 1950- 1958, the number of civilian trucks has increased from 40.000 to 96.000 trucks. Partly domestic produced and partly imported from the SU. Most transport are making use of traditional or primitive means of transport, like carts, animals, and porters. These labour-intensive transport is slow and inefficient, however, over short distances and mountainous regions, it is sufficient. The main objectives of the PRC in 1949 were centering on the initial steps toward collectivization and the introduction of a planned economy. This was likewise the case in the maritime economy. Priority lies in marine fishery (see Article 34), the nationalization of coastal salt manufacture, coastal land reclamation ((see Article 34)), marine transportation (See below), building of cargo ships (see Below) , reconstruction of harbours in Tianjin and Guangdong (see Below), and founding of fisheries colleges at universities. Hydropower and the struggle against floods were also priority objectives. (see Below) The founding of the Navy is described in Article 22)

Rivers

All the major rivers -the Changjiang, the Huang He, the Heilung, the Zhujiang (Pearl) and the Haiho - flow from west to east and empty into the Pacific. The Yalutsangpo and Nukiang rivers in southwest China stream south into the Indian Ocean. The Irtysh River which flows through Sinkiang eventually finds its way to the Arctic Ocean.
Huai river
The rivers in the northern part of China, north of the Huai River and the Chinling Mountains, have a large flow in the summer and a small flow in the winter. They freeze in the winter and are therefore not navigable the year round. Most of these rivers silt up, strong dykes have to contain these rivers otherwise they flood over and shift their course.
Changjiang
The rivers south of this northern part are navigable, they have more or less the same water volume and they don’t freeze in the winter. The Changjiang and its several major tributaries have a navigable length of more than 70,000 kilometres which makes the Changjiang the most important water route in China. "The importance of the Changjiang arises from three major considerations: (1) to move grain from Sichuan province, (2) to increase the exchange of goods between the Southwest and other parts of China, and (3) to transport coal and other important commodities on the middle and lower reaches of the river."
Comtois (1990) Page 789
Huang He
Zhujiang
The rivers in the southwest are not navigable, because they rush down between towering mountains and narrow gorges. (Nukiang and the Lantsang) Rivers in the northwest flow at irregular intervals and frequently dry up. (the Tarim, the Tsaidam and the Shuleh.)
Large rivers and canal
Source: Comtois Claude (1990). Transport and Territorial Development in China 1949–1985. Page 783

Many rivers were still in their natural states with a depth of less than one metre. The Grand Canal is of limited use as navigable waterway because of considerable silting and very low water during winter and spring when it is frozen for 5 to 6 months. It is used primarily to transport vast amounts of bulk goods such as bricks, gravel, sand, diesel, and coal. In 1957, only 144101 kilometres length of navigable inland waterways were available.

Harbours
There are 3 main harbours situated at the mouth of rivers, Tianjin (Haiho river), Shanghai (Changjiang) and Guangzhou (Zhujiang). These 3 harbours are connected with the hinterland by rivers, railways and airlines. Tianjin serves north China, Inner Mongolia and northwest China and is the main maritime gateway to Beijing. During the Civil War the harbour was damaged and left it unusable by the time of its capture in 1949. On 17 October 1952, it reopened for traffic.
The traffic loss of the Tianjin harbour has been less severe than in Shanghai. The proximity to Beijing and northeast China is the main reason. During the first five-year plan, the Northeast is the spearhead of the development of heavy industry. The port is more specialized in bulk products (coal and minerals). Shanghai serves valleys of Changjiang and Huai river and the southeast coastel provinces. After 1949, the limited international trade hampered the harbour, but river shipping remained busy. The development of river ports along the Yangtze (Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing are of great significance as river hub ports) was important for national transport. Guangzhou serves south China and becomes China’s main maritime hub for international trade. There are bay harbours in Dalian on the Liaodong Peninsula, Qingdao on the Shandong Peninsula and Zhanjiang on the Leizhou Peninsula. Rail connections link them to the hinterland.

Ship building
PRC does not possess a substantial merchant fleet, so overseas trade is carried on in foreign ships. Mostly provided by SU and Poland. China-Polish Joint Shipping Company was established in Tianjin in 1951, with the Chinese and Polish governments sharing equally the costs. Poland acquired several ships from Britain, Denmark, and Sweden to establish a new line with China.
In 1953, a Polish vessel on the South China Sea loaded with oil from Romania, was intercepted by Taiwan's navy. The tanker was escorted to Taiwan, where the Polish crew were later set free. However, despite negotiations of the Chinese Government through international lawyers, 18 Chinese crew members were sentenced to 5 or 10 years in jail.
From 1949 onwards China’s shipbuilding industry was initially fostered by its communist government to attain self-sufficiency in naval and mercantile shipbuilding. Shipbuilding was seen as a strategic industry in upgrading China’s military capability, driving its economic growth and as a catalyst for the development of its iron and steel industries,...
Murphy Hugh (2017). China, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Page 638
Shipbuilding industry started in Dalian. The Russian empire started a shipyard on leased territory. In 1905, after the Japan-Russian war, the Japanese expanded the ship yard. In 1945, at the end of the Second World War, the SU and China jointly operated the shipyard. On December 31, 1954, the SU handed the ship yard over to China. The shipyard in Shanghai has been founded during the last decades of the Qing empire. During the war, Japanese took control of the shipyard. In 1953, the shipyard was named Jiangnan Shipbuilding Factory. In 1954, the Guangzhou shipyard is founded.

Hydropower and floods
Several rivers are used to produce hydropower, only 22 large dams with an installed hydropower of 163 MW2 were in service in 1949. As early as 1919, there were ideas to build a series of large dams in Changjiang to control flood and to generate electric power. The civil war caused the abandonment of all projects. The flood of 1954 accelerates the preparation for a large dam in the Three Gorges. One year later the planning activities started with the help of SU experts.
In 1931 and 1935 floods caused the death of 300,000 people.
"…the 10 largest flood-prone areas in China are the Yangtze River Delta region, the area between Nanchang and Nanjing along the Yangtze River, the middle and lower parts of the Gan River region, the Dongting and Poyang Lake areas in the middle- and lower-Yangtze River basin, the Huai River basin, the piedmont region of the Taihang Mountains, the lower parts of the Hai River and Luan River, the Pearl River Delta, the lower part of the Liao River region, the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China, the Wei River Plain, and the Sichuan Basin."
Du Juan, Kong Feng, Du Shiqiang, Li Ning, Li Ying and Shi Peijun (2016). Floods in China. Page 149
Between June and September 1954, there were heavy floods, which affected Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces and caused the death of 30,000 people and affected 19 million people. "...the Beijing-Guangzhou railway line was suspended for more than 100 days. It is estimated that the 1954 flood caused more than 10 billion Yuan (about 0.98 billion Euros) of direct losses, and uncountable indirect ones (YWRP,1999)."
López-Pujol Jordi & Marta, Ponseti. (2006). The Three Gorges Dam Project in China: History and Consequences. Page 161
On October 14, 1950 GAC makes the decision to the governance of the Huaihe.
14-10-1950 The decision of the GAC on the governance of the Huaihe River
1954 Flood
While there was a big flood in the central provinces, there was draught in the North.
On November 2, 1949 the Politbureau of the CCP decided to establish a Civil Aviation Bureau under the People's Revolutionary Military Commission to manage civil avaiation. On November 9, 1949, pilots of the China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC), one of the two major Nationalist civil airlines defected to the PRC with 9 civil transport planes.
Document:12-11-1949 "Telegram to Managers and Staff of Two Aviation Corporations"
71 planes of the CNAC and the Central Air Transport Corporation are flown to Hong Kong. "On February 23, 1950, the Hong Kong Supreme Court ruled that the aircraft rightfully belonged to the People's Republic of China, thereby denying the rights of CAT while providing PRC with all the airplanes that were needed to start civil aviation operations on the mainland. The Communists were quick to send their crews to Hong Kong and repainted the airplanes with flag markings of the PRC. However, they never really received the aircraft. In July 1952, the ruling was reversed, and the decision was that the aircraft belonged to the Americans."
Tam Koon-Ho Joseph (1975). A comprehensive assessment of air transportation In mainland China. Pages 83-84. Many of the Chinese crews of the 71 planes detained in Hong Kong (while ownership of the planes was being determined) refused to return to the Mainland and sought employment elsewhere. Porch Harriett E. (1969). Communist China's Civil Aviation: 1950-1968. Page 91
After a 3-year court battle about 40 aircraft are handed over to Chennault's Civil Air Transport and shipped to the US.
Besides the 9 airplanes, there were a few other planes. During the Civil War, most ground facilities and aircrafts were destroyed or damaged. Maintenance facilities and fuel stocks were almost not existing and there was a shortage of trained personnel. The Civil Aviation Bureau started recruiting former airline personnel. Most pilots and technicians were trained in the SU, or by the PLAAF, or in the College of Aviation set up in Beijing in 1952. In the First Five Year Plan the major portion of the investments went to building and expanding airports and other facilities. In the first years of the PRC, civil traffic was nearly non-existent. Most traffic was done by the PLAAF with the assistance of SU personnel. "The main reason for the comparatively slow growth of air transportation in this period was the high cost of gasoline, especially in the western part of China. At some interior points, gasoline had to be brought in over great distances by caravan or truck. Hence, the cost might end up ten times higher than that at the ports along the east coast."
Tam (1975). A comprehensive assessment. Page 91
In 1950, two airlines were founded, a Chinese owned China Civil Aviation Corporation which could use about 25 US-built aircraft. About 12 could operate services in Eastern and Southern China, most of its flights were nonscheduled operations in support of the military.
Women pilots have been flying in the specialized services since 1952. A number of articles have been written about their experiences while making forest fire patrols, emergency medical flights, flood relief, and freight carrying flights. Porch (1969). Communist China's Civil Aviation. Page 93
The second airline is a joint corporation with the SU named SKOGA, in fact this was a continuation of the joint venture established in 1939 between the GMD and SU. After negotiations a ten-year "Agreement for the Establishment of a Joint Stock Sino-Soviet Civil Aviation Company" was signed in Moscow on March 27, 1950. It had a fixed share capital of 42 million rubles, each of which accounted for 50%. SKOGA was not a commercial success, very few people could afford the luxury of traveling by air. In 1954, the SU handed over all facilities and equipment to the PRC. December 30, 1954, an agreement was signed between Moscow and Beijing for opening opening three air routes: (1) Peking-Moscow, (2) Urumchi-Alma Ata, and (3) Peking-Chita by civil aircraft In 1954, both companies were dissolved and brought together in the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The postal system of the People’s Republic of China was established in Beijing in 1949 and was expanded to the liberated areas. This enabled the authority to cease the sale of regional stamps by end of June 1950, with the exception of the Northeast Liberation Area and the Port Arthur & Dairen Post & Telegraph (by end of 1950). The unified administration issued its first postage stamps in October 1949 that consisted of four with designs of ‘lantern and the Gate of Heavenly Peace’. Postal service is also used as propaganda tool, stamps play an important role. See Stamps. April 1949, GMD and CCP officials reached an agreement for the exchange of mails and the elimination of postal censorship. After mid-1949, the agreement ended and the GMD government reintroduced the blockade until January 1950. By the end of 1950, all provinces were entered into the unified postal service.
November 1, 1949, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications is established.
Zhu Xuefan
Zhu Xuefan (1905-1996) In November 1946, Zhu left Shanghai for Hong Kong where he announced his break with the Nationalists. In February 1948, he entered the Communist-controlled area and was selected as Vice-Chairman of the Chinese General Labor Union and Chairman of the National Work Committee.
was appointed Minister. He worked since 1924 for the Post Office. He was assisted by Gu Chunfan, former GMD director general of the Post Office and Zhao Zhigang, deputy director of the General Post Office, he was also a former GMD administrator. Little changes were made to the structure, organization, and personnel. "These decisions reflected Mao Zedong’s April 25, 1949, general directive on the procedures for taking over Nationalist offices and the specific policy of the Central Executive Committee on the Post Office. According to those policies, the Post Office should retain its existing business structure, restore services as quickly as possible, announce basic policies and protect supplies, educate staff and remold their ideology, and study the old systems to plan necessary reforms.2 There was also a “three preservations” policy to preserve the former offices, wages, and bureaucratic organization of the Nationalist Directorate. The Conference delegates also adopted slogans similar to the Nationalist Post Office, retained green and yellow as institutional colors, kept the vast majority of the staff, and maintained almost all internal working rules. The most significant changes were to staff titles and office nomenclature, both designed to reflect the revolutionary outlook of the new government.3"
Harris Lane Jeremy (2012). The post office and state formation in modern China, 1896-1949. Pages 445-446 Postal Directors (郵務長) now simply became First-Class Postal Officials (一等郵務員); postmen (信差) became mail delivery men (郵遞員); rural couriers (郵差) became mail transporters (郵運員), and office coolies (聽差) became postal assistants (郵助員).
At the end of 1949, the postal administration operated about 25,000 post offices, but more than 21,000 were postal agencies operated by persons other than employees of the postal administration. Plans are made for the rapid repair of postal routes, and the main postal routes should strive to reach the 1936 level as soon as possible.

The coastal cities, with large foreign business presence, had relatively advanced telephone systems. Shanghai possessed about 30% of all telephone lines on the mainland. In 1951, the total number of urban subscribers is 273.000, in the rural areas the total number is 45500. In the countryside, almost all telephones were for official use. In 1953, the administration started a campaign to provide more telephones in the countryside.
Harwit Eric (2004). Spreading Telecommunications to Developing Areas in China: Telephones, the Internet and the Digital Divide. Page 1014
On December 12, 1950, the Beijing-Moscow telephone line with a total length of more than 12,000 kilometers was officially opened. On October 1, 1949, at the founding ceremony of the PRC on Tiananmen Square, the Telecommunication Administration had installed more than 200 telephones, hundreds of kilometers of remote broadcast lines, several wireless transmitters and amplifying equipment for the square.
In 1950, plans are made to restore and build the main national long distance communication network, to build an international broadcast system, (see Article 49 ) to renovate and develop local telephone systems in the capital and other big cities, and to expand river and coastal radio stations to improve navigation. According to the suggestion of Soviet experts, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications decided in July 1950 that postal and telecommunications should be under the centralized and unified leadership of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications to implement professional division of labor within the Ministry, and set up 4 business function bureaus, namely the General Post Office, the General Administration of Long-distance Telecommunications, the General Administration of Radio, and the General Office of Local Telephone.
Shi Peijun, Xu Wei and Wan Jing’ai (2016). Natural Disaster System in China. Page 20 [↩]
Comtois(1990). Transport. Page 784 [↩]
Köll Elisabeth (2019). Railroads and the transformation of China. Page 226. See also 17-12-1949 Chen Yun "Telegram to comrade Ma Yinchu" [↩]
Köll (2019). Railroads. Pages 252-253 [↩]
"In the following year, railroad work units across the country began to employ women in all aspects of railroad- related work, especially in the service sector as train conductors, station personnel, ticket sellers, and administrators." Kroll (2019). Page 250 [↩]
Cotterill Duncan (2021). A Brief History of Standard Gauge Steam in China. http://www.railography.co.uk/info/cn_steam/profiles/history.htm [↩]
Zhang Shengfa (2010). Changchun Railway to China and Its Impact on Sino-Soviet Relations. Pages 70-71 [↩]
11-07-1950 Telegram from the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee to Gao Gang. "Cargo traffic intensified as well. The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 was an important reason for a sharp increase of international cargo on the railway line. Since the second half of 1950, Manzhouli became the major hub for military equipment shipments from the USSR and its allies to the Korean peninsula.29" Urbansky Sören (2012). A Very Orderly Friendship: The Sino-Soviet Border under the Alliance Regime, 1950-1960. Page 7.[↩]
Comtois(1990). Transport. Page 784 [↩]
See for example Flower John M. (2004). A Road Is Made: Roads, Temples, and Historical Memory in Ya'an County, Sichuan. [↩]
Comtois (1990) Page 789 [↩]
In 1953, a Polish vessel on the South China Sea loaded with oil from Romania, was intercepted by Taiwan's navy. The tanker was escorted to Taiwan, where the Polish crew were later set free. However, despite negotiations of the Chinese Government through international lawyers, 18 Chinese crew members were sentenced to 5 or 10 years in jail. [↩]
Murphy Hugh (2017). China, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Page 638 [↩]
Du Juan, Kong Feng, Du Shiqiang, Li Ning, Li Ying and Shi Peijun (2016). Floods in China. Page 149 [↩]
López-Pujol Jordi & Marta, Ponseti. (2006). The Three Gorges Dam Project in China: History and Consequences. Page 161 [↩]
Tam Koon-Ho Joseph (1975). A comprehensive assessment of air transportation In mainland China. Pages 83-84. Many of the Chinese crews of the 71 planes detained in Hong Kong (while ownership of the planes was being determined) refused to return to the Mainland and sought employment elsewhere. Porch Harriett E. (1969). Communist China's Civil Aviation: 1950-1968. Page 91 [↩]
Tam (1975). A comprehensive assessment. Page 91 [↩]
Women pilots have been flying in the specialized services since 1952. A number of articles have been written about their experiences while making forest fire patrols, emergency medical flights, flood relief, and freight carrying flights. Porch (1969). Communist China's Civil Aviation. Page 93 [↩]
Harris Lane Jeremy (2012). The post office and state formation in modern China, 1896-1949. Pages 445-446. Postal Directors (郵務長) now simply became First-Class Postal Officials (一等郵務員); postmen (信差) became mail delivery men (郵遞員); rural couriers (郵差) became mail transporters (郵運員), and office coolies (聽差) became postal assistants (郵助員). [↩]
Harwit Eric (2004). Spreading Telecommunications to Developing Areas in China: Telephones, the Internet and the Digital Divide. Page 1014 [↩]