The Common Program of the People's Republic of China 1949-1954

Chapter 5 of the Common Program

In his speech on June 6, 1950 Zhou Enlai explains the "Common Program" is clear: new democratic education is national, scientific, and mass education. Our education is mass-oriented, serving the people, and this is the direction of our education. Chapter 5 of the Common Program has 9 articles.
Article 41 describes the general characteristics of culture and education in the People's Republic of China. In the next articles, these characteristics will be elaborated.
Article 42 stresses the importance of nationalism and good citizenship.
Articles 43 and 44 deal with the development of the natural sciences and social sciences.
Article 45 stresses the importance of literature and art to serve the people.
Article 46 includes the unification of theory and practice, and the reformation of the educational system.
Article 47 deals with universal education
Article 48 focuses on sport and health
Finally art 49, deals with reporting truthful news.
Articles 41, 43, 44, 46, and 47 overlap in content.

In the People’s Republic of China, art, education, science, and press are considered important propaganda tools. The structure of the Bureaus and Subdivisions of the Propaganda Department (Nov. 1951-late 1954) shows this clearly:
Office 办公室
Theory Propaganda Bureau 理论宣传处
Political Education Bureau 政治教育处
Current Affairs Propaganda Bureau 时事宣传处
Mass Propaganda Bureau 群众宣传处
International Propaganda Bureau 国际宣传处
Literature and Art Bureau 文学艺术处
Film Bureau 电影处
Schools and Education Bureau 学校教育处
Science and Public Hygiene Bureau 科学卫生处
Publishing Bureau 出版处
Newspaper and Broadcasting Bureau 报纸广播处
Cadres Bureau 干部处
Bureau of Administration 行政处
Party History Materials Office 党史资料室
Complete Works of Stalin Translation Bureau 斯大林全集翻译室
Selected Works of Mao Zedong English Translation Office 毛泽东选集英译室
Training Class for Propaganda Cadres 宣传干部训练班
Volland (2003) poses the question: So what is it that unites newspapers, literature, political theory, education, and hygiene? In short, they all aim at improving of the psychological and physical health of man (shen-xin jiankang 身心健康).
In his longer explanation, Volland concludes " is the aim of the Party to form a socialist man who is free from pathologies of both physical and mental kind (both of which are caused by oppression forces in the “old” society),159 a man healthy both in his thinking and his body who participates in and is devoted entirely to the cause led by the Communist Party.160 To fundamentally transform man, he must be provided with an environment that allows his body to develop its full potential, and that feeds his mind with only the healthiest nourishment. The Chinese media are thus embedded in a project with much larger objectives that can be identified properly only if full account is taken of their environment; this is what the perspective of the propaganda xitong (sector) does – the space where the Party’s concerns for the people’s mind and for their body meet.

Article 44
Article 46
Unification of theory and practice
  • Practice and Theory
  • Thought Remoulding
  • Notes Documents
  • Conclusions

    Volland (2003). Page 63 [↩] [Cite]
    Volland (2003). Page 63 [↩] [Cite]
    Volland (2003). Page 66 [↩] [Cite]

    Chapter 5 of Common Program