Article 3 of the Common Program
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Article 3 of the Common Program

The People's Republic of China must abolish all the prerogatives of imperialist countries in China.
It must confiscate bureaucratic capital and put it into the possession of the people's state.
It must systematically transform the feudal and semi feudal land ownership system into a system of peasant land ownership; it must protect the public property of the state and of the cooperatives and must protect the economic interests and private property of workers, peasants, the petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie.
It must develop the people's economy of New Democracy and steadily transform the country from an agricultural into an industrial one.





This article of the Common Program is a short statement about the general policy towards imperialism and feodalism. In other articles this policy is described more in detail. See Article 54 and Article 55 about the relations with foreign countries. See Article 26 to Article 40 about economic measures to eliminate feudal remnants.
Now a survey follows on nationalisations. Mao Zedong tells Mikoyan in February 1949 (See Part 5), that there are no plans for nationalisation. “Our policy with regard to private industrial enterprises must not repeat former mistakes, so as not to scare away the national bourgeoisie, therefore now we will not carry out the confiscation of private industrial capital and its enterprises.”
Document: 06-02-1949 Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong
The CCP has always made a difference between national enterprises and foreign businesses. The latter should be eliminated as soon as possible. With the exception of American assets, no systematic plan for nationalisation was made before May 1952.
"The CCP’s standard practice was to manoeuvre foreign firms into positions where they had no option but to offer their assets to the state ‘voluntarily’ to avoid any possible compensation claims later. To apply pressure, the Communists denied foreign firms the opportunity to make profits or to sell their property, while increasing their liabilities.65"
Howlett Jonathan J. (2014) Accelerated Transition British Enterprises in Shanghai and the Transition to Socialism. European journal of East Asian studies, 13. Page 179
At the end of December 1950 the People's Republic of China decides to confiscate all American posesions and to freeze all private and national assets.This is in in line with the decisions of the 6th CCP congress in 1928 which stated the nationalisation of all foreign firms.
In 1951 the Chinese government decides to take over all American funded schools and institutes and to destroy all American influences. Before the Second World War there were 13 American-supported colleges and universities in China, many of which had been created by religious congregations. See Article 41 Moreover, an important percentage (of the order of 50%) of the Chinese professors had studied in the United States for some time. In short, there was a strong cultural connection between China and the United States.
Roehner Bertrand M.(2014). Relations between western forces and the population of China. Institute for Theoretical and High Energy Physics, University of Paris 6. Page 14
In april 1952 the UK and the People's Republic of China conclude a commercial agreement but this doesnot prevent confiscation of British possesions in Shanghai, Tianjin and Wuhan. At the other hand in 1957 ten British-owned companies still operated in Shanghai. "In practice, the ‘foreign’ was often very difficult to untangle from the ‘Chinese’.23 British commercial enterprises were tied into the Chinese economy in a multitude of ways. Removing them presented complex problems that were too difficult to resolve along simplistic ideological lines.
Howlett Jonathan J. (2014). Page 171
All schools, churches and other social or cultural organizations which receive money from foreign countries are obliged to cut off their relations with their financiers. The most important tool to destroy feudal remnants is the Land reform law. On June 30, 1950 the government promulgates this law. This law stipulates a division of land, livestock and farm implements of the rich farmers (10% of the total number of farmers) to the poor farmers (70%) and to the small and medium farmers (20%). To guide this law properly, the government announced four days later the decision that regulates class status in the country. Liu Shaoqi notes in his explanation of the land reform law "The policy we have adopted to preserve the rich peasant economy is of course not a temporary but a long term policy. That is to say throughout the stage of new democracy we shall preserve the rich peasant economy. It will become unnecessary only when farming is mechanized on a large scale, collective farms are organized and socialist transformation is carried out in rural areas. This will become possible only in the rather distant future. This is why we advocate preservation of the rich peasant economy at present."
Document: 14-06-1950 Liu Shaoqi Report on the question of agrarian reform
Article 27 of the Common Program relates to this law.

Conclusion...

The new regime arrested energetically to the destruction of feudal and imperial remnants. In the articles mentioned above there will be a more detailed description. In this chapter Article 6 will treat an other important feudal remnant the low position of women in Chinese society.


Literature Notes Documents...

2.Howlett Jonathan J. (2014) Accelerated Transition British Enterprises in Shanghai and the Transition to Socialism. European journal of East Asian studies, 13. Page 179 Back
3.Roehner Bertrand M.(2014). Relations between western forces and the population of China. Institute for Theoretical and High Energy Physics, University of Paris 6. Page 14 Back
4.Howlett Jonathan J. (2014). Page 171 Back
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