The Common Program of the People's Republic of China 1949-1954

Article 22 of the Common Program

On February 3, 1949, the PLA holds a big military parade in Beijing. The parade is meticulously orchestrated to show that: “…the red army was forcefully stating that it intended to demolish two evils of China’s past: feudalism and imperialism. The communist army,…, would now ‘liberate’ China.” An observer noticed “(it was) the most extensive public display of US military hardware in over a decade." “ This parade of American and Japanese weaponry is also to disguise the military aid of the SU." In 1949, the People's Republic of China is not capable to produce its own ships, tanks, airplanes, and modern weapons. "According to the official history of China’s defence industry, by the end of 1949 ‘[t]here was actually no capability to develop and produce modern weapons such as aircraft, naval vessels, tanks, large calibre cannons and military electronics. New China’s defence industry started on this very weak basis’.20" The navy has captured several GMD ships, of which about 100 are seaworthy. The majority of men (4000) are ex GMD sailors.
Modernization of the People's Liberation Army
The air force has less than 200 airplanes. They are from USA, UK and Japan. However, not only the weaponry is foreign, even the soldiers are foreign. In 1949, during the battle around Tianjin, Japanese soldiers manned the captured Japanese artillery. The PLA soldiers were not used to modern weaponry, so they had to learn this from ex-GMD and Japanese officers and soldiers. They achieved this objective by establishing schools aimed at integrating equipment, thereby transforming the army into one capable of effectively utilizing artillery and tanks in coordinated operations. To facilitate this process, former Guomindang officers and soldiers, along with Japanese prisoners of war, were enlisted. Furthermore, the PLA didn't solely rely on the expertise of Japanese soldiers. Yan Xishan (1883-1960), a warlord in Shanxi, successfully persuaded 15,000 Japanese soldiers to join his army. This assistance proved crucial in Yan's capacity to resist until 1949.

In her pursuit of achieving more unity within the PLA, the PLA mainly looks at the structure of the SU army. "We must learn every bit of the advanced experiences of the Soviet Union in order to change our armed forces from their condition of backwardness and construct our armed forces into a most superior modernized military force [in the world], so as to be able to assure ourselves of the ability to defeat, in the future, the invasion of the imperialists' armies." The PLA implements most of the regulations of the Russian army. In 1955, the PLA also introduced the conscription, the grading structure, and salary. This copying of the SU model runs anything but smooth. The PLA embarked on learning and assimilating a significantly different model without fully considering the role its own longstanding model of army building should play. The PLA's original model can be characterized by several key aspects: a strong emphasis on egalitarianism among officers and soldiers, rigorous ideological indoctrination emphasizing spiritual dedication, integration with the masses as essential for conducting People's War, and the concept of shuangzhangzhi, or parallel authority of both commanders and commissars within combat units, reflecting the principle of collective leadership. In contrast, the Soviet model prioritized professionalism, emphasized the importance of military hardware, elevated commanders above commissars, and relied on formal institutional structures. At its core, the conflict revolved around the question of whether political control should continue to hold sway.
Fig. 22.1 The military expenditure of the PRC 1950-1954
Source: Chang (1995). Page 120
Neither the Chinese nor the Soviet governments have published a complete account of Soviet loans to China.
Fig. 22.2 Soviet loans to China 1950-1954
Source: Shen (2020). Page 156
In 100 million old rubbles
The PLA is in constant need of SU equipment during the Korean War, Mao Zedong begs on a regular base for new military specialists, guns, anti-aircraft guns, vehicles, and bicycles. On June 4, 1953, the SU and the People's Republic of China close several important deals, in which the SU will assist in the construction of China’s defense industry. This includes the production of modern weaponry for land forces, air forces, and navy, the modernization of shipyards, and the construction of factories to build airplanes. China in return will deliver raw materials such as tungsten, copper, and rubber to the SU.

In December 1953, the PLA convened a meeting on the experience of the Korean War. Peng Dehuai remarks “the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea was an important challenge to our army . . . its importance lies in the fact that we must raise the military art of our armed forces to a new level” Deng Hua concludes “that although nature of war and the army's political quality will still play a decisive role in modern warfare, [our army's] sources of military materiel and technological conditions will be indispensable factors.” The lessons drawn from the Korean War encompassed a transition from solitary infantry operations to collaborative joint operations involving multiple services and branches. This evolution extended from ground-based maneuvers to encompass three-dimensional operations spanning land, air, and sea. Moreover, the shift was observed from mobile warfare to a combination of mobile and positional warfare tactics. Furthermore, there was a shift from exclusively front-line operations to comprehensive operations encompassing both the front lines and rear areas, among other developments. The conflict underscored the devastating impact of modern warfare, particularly for the militarily weaker side. Although precise Chinese casualty figures remain estimations, it is believed that approximately ten Chinese soldiers were lost for every American soldier, with similar numbers wounded on both sides. Additionally, the PLA recognized that logistical and supply challenges imposed limitations on the scale and duration of offensive operations it could undertake. Given the predominantly foot-based mobility of Chinese forces, lacking mechanization, any battlefield breakthroughs were difficult to fully exploit.
Chen (2015) concludes in the summer of 1951 the Korea war comes to a stalemate along the 38th Parallel "In the defensive stage of the Korean War, the PLA underwent huge changes in equipment, personnel, doctrine, and in its interactions with the outside world. These changes not only enabled the PLA to hold the front until the armistice, but also transformed it from an inward looking Civil War victor to a more internationalised, outward looking Cold War guard equipped with modern weapons from the Soviet bloc, modelling itself on the Soviet military, and defending the Cold War front in East Asia."
In 1949, the PLA started with the construction of its own air force (PLAAF) and navy (PLAN). The base for both of these organizations is the legacy of the PLA. Commander Liu Yalou wrote in 1951 "The PLAAF must oppose two erroneous tendencies. The first tendency is to believe the PLAAF is a new service that can disregard the legacy of the Army. The second tendency is to be complacent with just some of the Army’s experience. Both of these tendencies are wrong and will impede development.”… “the Air Force will be developed on the basis of the Army."

The People's Liberation Army Air Force

March 17, 1949, two Soviet-trained aviation pioneers: Chang Qiankun becomes the commander and Wang Bi the political commissar of the newly formed PLAAF. Their mission is to expand the air force with as many GMD airplanes as possible and to persuade GMD personnel to work for the PLA. "In the period 1946–49, the number of Communist Chinese military aircraft fluctuated widely owing to war losses, captures and defections by Guomindang pilots. By the end of the war there were fewer than 200 aircraft left. According to official Chinese accounts, the new regime in Beijing in late 1949 could lay claim to approximately 159 foreign aircraft—US, British, and Japanese—including P-47 and P-51 fighters, Japanese ‘Oscar’ fighters, B-24 and B-25 bombers, as well as transports and trainer aircraft, although many of these aircraft were not operational.42 In addition, the PLA was able to capture from the retreating Guomindang some 1278 aircraft engines and more than 40 000 tonnes of aviation equipment and supplies, nearly all of which was of foreign origin.43" The leadership of the PLA faced immediate challenges concerning aviation equipment. The equipment left behind by previous forces was predominantly of foreign origin, with very few domestically manufactured items. This included not only aircraft but also essential ground facilities such as airfields, hangars, factories, repair depots, and fuel dumps, which had a significant influence from foreign engineering practices.
The assortment of aviation equipment was so varied and incongruous that it was unfeasible to utilize it as a solid foundation for establishing a new air force or developing a self-sustaining aviation industry. Even if the issue of communism had not strained relationships with foreign suppliers, the sheer disparity in equipment would have posed insurmountable obstacles. Even before the establishment of the PLAAF, discussions were held in Moscow to pursue the development of a standardized and modern air force, along with the indigenous capability to manufacture aircraft.
In September 1949, the SU decided to provide China with 334 planes and artillery pieces, including 360 antiaircraft guns. Almost at the same time, during August to October 1949, 6 aviation institutes are founded, where 878 Russian experts teach. On July 10, 1949, Mao Zedong planned to send between 300 to 400 officers to the SU to be trained as a pilot or engineer and to purchase at least 100 airplanes. “Together with the air force we have now, they will form an offensive unit to support the cross-strait campaign and prepare to seize Taiwan next summer.” In the years 1949-1950 the SU, at the request of the PRC, provided air protection to the industrial centres of Northeast China and Shanghai against enemy air raids from the GMD regime of Taiwan.
On November 11, 1949, after all this preliminary work, the PLAAF is founded. The staff of the PLAAF are all officers of the land forces. The main task of the PLAAF is ‘to be battle ready’ as soon as possible to conquer Hainan and Taiwan. From July 1950 onwards, the PLAAF asks for more airplanes and trainers from the SU. A different way to achieve this goal is cooperation with the GMD servicemen who are defected or who will defect. Throughout the Korean War, the primary objective of both the emerging Chinese air force and the Soviet Air Force was to provide aerial protection for transportation routes and restoration efforts on airfields, hydroelectric power plants, Yalu River bridges, frontline transportation networks, and the region north of the Chongju River.
Prime Minister Zhou Enlai stated in December 1950: "Construction of China’s aviation industry should be carried out according to the Chinese practical situation . . . We could not just rely on buying foreign aircraft and only carrying out repair by ourselves. The construction road, therefore, of China’s aviation industry should be conducting repair first, manufacture afterwards and then the design . . . certain consideration should be given to the planning and arrangement of turning [repair facilities] into a manufacture factory in the future. Meanwhile, negotiations should be carried out with the Soviets about their assistance for the construction of our aviation industry."
During the Korean War, the PLAAF grew rapidly, especially in 1953. See table below.
Fig. 22.3 The number of aircrafts delivered from the SU. 1952-1954
Source: Aihua (2011). Page 30
Also, the number of Soviet military specialist advisers in the Chinese air force grows rapidly.
Fig. 22.4 The number Soviet military specialist advisers for the PLAAF. 1949-1954
Source: Aihua (2011). Page 31
From December 1953 onwards, China receives the production rights to produce its own MiG-15bis and starts to design airplanes based on Russian planes. China’s first indigenously produced military aircraft, the CJ–5 trainer manufactured at the Nanchang Aircraft Factory, made its first successful test flight on July 11, 1954.

The People's Liberation Army Navy

On May 2, 1949, the PLA layered the foundation for its own navy. Zhang Aiping is commissioned to build a fleet that makes it possible to transport military troops and support an attack on Taiwan. March 25, 1949, Mao Zedong and Zhu De stresses the importance of defection after the mutiny of the troops of the Chongqing cruiser. "Your rebellion shows that the KMT reactionaries and their American imperialist bosses are on their last legs. They can damage such a ship as the Chongqing by bombing, but they cannot prevent even more vessels from joining it, and even more vessels, aircraft, and army units will rebel to join the People's Liberation Army. The Chinese people are certain to establish their own powerful national defense, and in addition to an army, we must also build our own air force and navy. You, then, are among the vanguard that will build the Chinese People's Navy." One month later, 25 warships fall in the hands of the PLA after GMD admiral Deng Zhaoxing defects to the CCP.
November 1949, a navy academy starts in Shenyang with 84 SU specialists. Later on, 711 Russian naval experts in three batches are also dispatched. Along the coastline, rudimentary maintenance and logistics infrastructure are constructed. Zhang Aiping goes to the SU looking for aid and he buys old submarines, patrol boats, and other vessels. On October 25, 1949, with the amphibious landing on Quemoy , the PLAN has its baptism of fire. The supremacy of the GMD at sea and in the air makes this landing a total disaster. The invasion of Dengbu two weeks later turns also out in disaster. The importance of having a capable navy had already become clear during the campaign around Tianjin. The effort to seize Tianjin faced the challenge of its geographic layout, with the city encompassed by water bodies and crisscrossed by canals and waterways, serving as a pivotal gateway to the sea for the North China plain. By the initial week of January 1949, Nationalist forces had inundated a significant portion of the area, impeding movement and compelling Communist forces to assemble boats for their assault.
In May 1950, when the PLAN is officially founded, the complete fleet of the People's Republic of China exists of “… a motley armada of 5,000 vessels . . . freighters, motorized junks, and sampans” to use for the invasion of Taiwan; this force was to be manned by “30,000 fishermen and other sailors.” Some of these fishing boats were used to clear Shantou Harbour of mines. The PLAN established a mine sweeping regiment in April 1950 to clean the Yangzi Jiang of sea mines. With the help of Soviet experts, four landing warships were reequipped as minesweepers. During the Korean War, the PLAN succeeded in laying thousands of mines along the coast of North Korea.
General Su Yu responsible for the upcoming attack on Taiwan “... estimated that 760,000 tons of shipping, plus 2,000 small boats, were needed to execute this campaign plan, but these forces were not available. The general knew even more troops would be required, since the KMT forces on Taiwan were becoming more capable with the passage of time, but more troops required more transports and supporting vessels.”
The main part of the personnel of the navy are retrained army personnel with little or no marine skills. The early Soviet assistance program included the creation of the Soviet Naval Advisory Mission in Beijing and the dispatch of 500 naval advisers and maintenance personnel in 1950. In January 1950, the CMC, appointed an Army general, Xiao Jinguang , as the first PLAN commander. In July 1950, the Soviet Union began to deliver naval weapons, equipment, and spare parts for the nascent PLAN. October 22, 1950, Mao Zedong asks for more high-speed torpedo boats, floating mines, armoured ships, small patrol boats, minesweeping equipment, coastal fortress artillery and torpedo bomber planes. The first Soviet transfers of finished naval craft consisted of about 50 World War II-vintage torpedo boats, which occurred in 1951.
In October 1951, Mao Zedong directed the RMC to prioritize coastal defense as China's primary frontline protection. He emphasized that establishing a robust coastal defense necessitated the development of a formidable navy. Drawing from historical lessons of vulnerable maritime borders and past invasions by foreign adversaries, Mao Zedong recognized the imperative for maritime security. Considering the maritime challenges confronting New China and the strategic imperative of Taiwan's unification, he advocated for the construction of a potent navy, a critical component of Mao Zedong's maritime strategic vision.
In April 1952, a delegation led by Xiao Jinguang visited the Soviet Union for solving the problem of naval weapons and equipment. A treaty between the PLAN and the SU is signed on June 4, 1953. The PLAN buys 5 types of ships, including the right to produce these ships (i.e., minesweepers and submarines). In the first Five Year plan, the navy’s development is limited to coastal defense and coastal fortifications. Until 1957, the PLAN shall expand from 298 to 785 vessels and increase the tonnage from 11.5 million tons to 25 million tons. During a politburo meeting in December 1953, Mao Zedong explained the duties of the PLAN “we must build a strong navy”: (1) to get rid of disturbances by ocean pirates and protect the security of ocean channel shipping; (2) to prepare the strength to recover Taiwan at an appropriate opportunity and eventually unify our entire country; and, (3) to ready our forces to resist an invasion of imperialism from the sea. He qualified these goals, however, by noting that the navy had to be built “in a planned, progressive way in accordance with the situations regarding industrial development and finance.”

Mao Zedong is convinced nuclear weapons will not make the difference in a war situation. How dire the weapon, eventually the people will determine the outcome of the war. In a speech on September 5, 1950, he thus expresses “We will not allow you [the Americans] to use the atomic bomb [against us]. But if you won't give it up, you may just use it. You can follow the way you choose to go, and we will do whatever is to our [best] advantages [in encountering you]. You may bomb [us] with the atomic bomb, but we will respond with our hand-grenades. We then will catch your weakness to tie you up and finally defeat you.”
Despite this rhetoric, the political leaders of the CCP are already interested in nuclear weapons from the moment they are negotiating with SU leaders. Between June and August 1949, Liu Shaoqi and Gao Gang undertook a visit to the Soviet Union to set the stage for a significant encounter between Stalin and Mao Zedong. Surprisingly, Liu Shaoqi expressed interest in visiting Soviet nuclear facilities. However, Stalin declined the request, unwilling to divulge his country's progress in nuclear technology to foreign visitors, regardless of their identity. During the negotiations between Mao Zedong and Stalin in January and February 1950, the issue of military assistance in case of a war should be extended 'with all means at its disposal' in other words “nuclear assurances to China.” After the death of Stalin, Mao Zedong again approached the SU leaders to provide China with an atomic bomb. The SU leaders reject this demand but are inclined to give more military assistance. During his 1954 visit, Khrushchev reiterated both Stalin's and his own previous stance that China did not require atomic weaponry, as it, along with the Eastern European Socialist countries, was already under the protection of the Soviet nuclear umbrella.
From the year 1955, on Mao Zedong is determined to make China a superpower and a way to achieve this is by developing a Chinese atomic bomb. To attain this goal, a nuclear development program is initiated under the leadership of Zhou Enlai and with the help of the SU. The Chinese leaders realize they have to rely on the aid of the SU to develop their own nuclear program and that they cannot rely on the nuclear protection of the SU. A lesson they learned during the Korean War.
The utility of shelters during nuclear attacks is questionable, however, the first 5-year plan provided plans for expanding the number of shelters. Already in the 1930s several air defense tunnels were built, after 1949 it was decided to maintain and expand the existing shelters. Especially in the coastal areas, to protect against air raids from the GMD regime of Taiwan. In 1952, the city of Fuzhou has constructed shelter facilities to accommodate 70.000 persons. In the Northeast, additional shelters were built to protect against possible air raids during the Korea War.
Anti-chemical Weapons Education

All these expansion plans come under fire because the People's Republic of China faces a budget crisis in 1953. (See Article 40 )
Fig. 22.5 Expenditure for economic building 1950-1952
Source: Wen (2021). Page 134
A deficit of more than 12% forces the CCP to downsize the expenditures of the government and the military. The modernization plans in the first Five Year plan have to be altered. The import of new weapons has to be stopped and instead a national defense industry has to develop. After much debate in August and September 1953 during RMC meetings,the military leaders made several decisions. Firstly, they planned to reduce the force by 1.3 million within two years, aiming for a total of 3.5 million personnel, which included the public security force. This decision reaffirmed an earlier one, made before the announcement of the budget cap, and primarily involved demobilizing infantry units.See Article 25. Secondly, they decided to halt the growth of services and branches for the next five years. Thirdly, they aimed to streamline and reorganize the general departments and military Regions, which were deemed excessively large. Lastly, the RMC would explore various systems, such as conscription, ranks, and salaries, to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of command needed for complex, modern operations.

Hung (2007). Page 412 [Cite]
the British Consulate-General at Qingdao is surprised how easy the takeover of that city on June 2, 1949 is, because "The troops on entering Tsingtao looked very weary, foot sore and weather beaten, ages vary from 15-50 all wearing apparently new uniforms, the khaki varying very much in colour, from greenish to a ghastly mustard, the political forces wore grey uniforms. There are many women in the forces. The troops do not appear to have much in the way of equipment, this is probably due to the main force not having arrived yet, but they apparently have enough to keep peace and order however. From general appearances, it is a mystery how they walked through the nationalists." Foreign Office Files for China, 1949-1980 FO 371/75764 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Gill (1995). Page 17 [↩] [Cite]
“During the period 1946–50, the PLA captured, mainly from the retreating Nationalists, some 3 160 000 rifles, 320 000 machine-guns, 55 000 artillery pieces, 622 tanks, 389 armoured vehicles, 189 military aircraft and 200 small warships.17.” Gill (1995). Page 17.
In December 1948, the US Military Attaché in Nanjing reported that 80 percent of the weapons and 75 percent of the ammunition that the United States had supplied the Guomindang had been captured. Andrew (2008). Page 163 [↩] [Cite]
Andrew (2008). Page 156 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Gill (1995). Pages 17-18 [↩] [Cite]
Diamant (2010). Page 11 [↩] [Cite]
Andrew (2008). Page 156 [↩] [Cite]
Benesch (2014). Page 148 [↩] [Cite]
01-01-1950 Mao Zedong Comment on a summary of the relationship between the various departments of the military and the soviet advisors
" b) The staff-organizational structure you have proposed for the present Chinese infantry divisions is very good. We are implementing it. With sixteen divisions armed in accordance with this staff-organizational structure, the Chinese army will be far stronger than at present."  30-06-1951 Ciphered telegram, Mao Zedong to Filippov (Stalin) on reorganizations proposed by Stalin [↩]
Ji (2010). Pages 134-135 [↩] [Cite]
A list of these regulations to be found at Ji (2010). Page 133 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Zhang (1999). Page 199. [Cite]
Peng Dehuai also states “The experience of the Korean War proves that in modern war if there is no guarantee of ample supply of materiel from the rear, war is impossible to conduct.” cited in Fravel (2019). Page 62 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Zhang (1999). Page 199 [↩] [Cite]
Fravel (2019). Page 61 [↩] [Cite]
Chen (2015). Page 212 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Burkitt (2003). Page 106 [↩] [Cite]
Gill (1995). Page 25 [Cite]
"On the eve of establishing the PLAAF, Chinese communist forces had fewer than 3,000 trained aviation personnel. There were 202 pilots, 30 navigators, 2373 mechanics, three engineers and miscellaneous personnel....Airmen from the communist movement constituted 88 percent of the pilots but only 15 percent of the mechanics. Personnel "accepted" from the Kuomintang (i.e., Nationalist) forces represented 85 percent of the mechanics and an even higher percentage of technical personnel. [18] More than 100 Japanese pilots and technically trained ground personnel remained in Manchuria after 1945. They were part of the initial contingent of instructors at the Northeast Old Aviation Schoo1 19" [↩] [Cite]
Zhao (2011). Pages 19-20 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Zhang (2002). Page 33 [↩] [Cite]
Shen (2012b). Page 182 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Duan (1989). Page 16 [↩] [Cite]
China Today: The People's Navy 1987. Page 34 [↩] [Cite]
Liu (2016). Page 2. [Cite]
Yu (2016). "The outcome was the total annihilation of three PLA regiments, totalling over nine thousand soldiers, at the hands of a beat-up and retreating Nationalist contingent." Page 91. He states "...But the problem was not just a lack of vessels but poor planning and hostility from local residents." Page 93. He continues "Most fishermen resisted the PLA demand to surrender their vessels as troop transports". Page 94 [Cite]
 29-10-1949 Central Military Commission's Notice on the Lessons Learned from the Failed Attack on Quemoy (Kinmen) Island [↩]
Burkitt (2003). Page 186 note 10 [↩] [Cite]
Burkitt (2003). Page 167 [↩] [Cite]
Gill (1995). Page 24 [↩] [Cite]
Jia (2021). Page 3 [↩] [Cite]
Fortifications will come in five areas. The first three of these are in the northeast, which had been identified as the main strategic direction: the Liaodong Peninsula, the area from Qinhuang Island to Tanggu on the coast just northeast of Tianjin, and the Jiaodong Peninsula (which refers to main part of the Shandong Peninsula). The other two areas of focus were the Zhoushan Islands area near Shanghai, and Hainan Island. Fravel (2019). Page 66 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Burkitt (2003). Page 170. [Cite]
In 1950, Xiao Jingguang, the commander of Chinese naval forces insisted that "..the navy should be a light type navy, capable of inshore defence. Its key mission is to accompany the ground forces in war actions. The basic characteristic of this navy is fast deployment, based on its lightness." Cited in Ji (1991). Page 139.
"In step with this doctrine, the navy established the 'three-point pillars' of its forces; namely, the torpedo boats, land-based naval aircraft and submarines. Of these, the submarine fleet enjoyed priority in development." "Mao's military thinking, centred on the 'people's war', was the fundamental guideline for the formulation of naval plans." Ji (1991). Page 139 [↩] [Cite]
Cited in Gaddis (1999). Page 196 [↩] [Cite]
Gobarev (1999) Page 3. [Cite]
However, as compensation, the Soviets invited the Chinese delegation to watch a documentary about the nuclear test. Since the Soviet Union’s first atomic bomb exploded on August 29, 1949 and Liu Shaoqi had already left Moscow at that time, so the CCP delegation saw was not about the Soviet nuclear test. When Mao Zedong visited Moscow in early 1950, Stalin was able to show Mao Zedong a documentary film of the Soviet atomic bomb test.
"...the CCP engaged in a 'systematic programme of collecting Information' on atomic issues.12 Second, China began preparations to survive a nuclear war via the adoption of civil defence measures, notably the construction of air raid shelters and tunnelling Systems.13". Horsburgh (2015). Page 41 [↩] [Cite]
Gobarev (1999). Page 4 [↩] [Cite]
Soviet efforts resulted in the substitution of the words 'state of war' for 'military engagement' in the final version of the treaty.9 Therefore, under the new wording, in the event the Chinese became engaged in military actions with no declaration of war, the Soviet Union was under no formal obligation to provide its support, to say nothing about the activation of the nuclear guarantees. Gobarov (1999). Pages 4-5 [↩] [Cite]
Gobarev (1999). Page 20. [Cite]
See also Shen (2012). [↩] [Cite]
October 31, 1950 Central Civil Air Defense Preparatory Committee is headed by Zhou Enlai, and its office is set up in the Ministry of Public Security. In November 1953, the first National People's Air Defense Conference is held and the Central People's Air Defense Committee was formally established. [↩]
Fravel (2019). Page 68 [↩] [Cite]

10-03-1950 Zhu De "Build a powerful people's air force"
11-09-1951 Zhu De "Build the navy defend our coast"
24-09-1951 Zhu De "Unify the training plan and speed up the building of a modern and regularized army"
26-10-1951 Zhu De "The decisive role of skills in building the armoured force"

21-08-1953 Meeting CMC on modernization of the PLA
04-09-1953 Meeting CMC on modernization of the PLA
00-12-1953 Enlarged PB meeting on the PLAN
07-12-1953 - 26-01-1954 Meeting CCP on modernization of the PLA
18-10-1954 Meeting CMC on nuclear warfare

Chapter 3 of Common Program