Article 34 of the Common Program
Text
Article 34 of the Common Program

Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and animal-husbandry: In all areas where agrarian reform has been thoroughly carried out, the central task of the people's government shall be the organization of the peasants and of all manpower available for allocation to the development of agricultural production and secondary occupations. The People's Government shall also guide the peasants step by step, in the organization of various forms of mutual aid in labour and co-operation in production, according to the principle of willingness and mutual benefit. In newly liberated areas, every step in agrarian reform shall he linked up with reviving and developing agricultural production.
The People's Government shall, in accordance with the state plan and the requirements of the people's livelihood, strive to restore the output of grain, industrial raw materials and export goods to the pre-war production level and to surpass it within the shortest possible time. Attention shall be paid to construction and repair of irrigation works, to prevention of floods and droughts, to restoration and development of animal husbandry, to increasing the supply of fertilizers, to improvement of farm implements and seeds, to prevention of pest damage and plant diseases, to relief work in the event of natural calamities, and to planned migration for land reclamation.
Forests shall be protected and forestation shall be developed according to plan
Coastal fisheries shall be protected and the aquatic products industry shall be developed.
Livestock-raising shall be protected and developed, and preventive measures shall be taken against plague.

Introduction....


There are 3 types of fisheries: deep-sea, inshore, and inland. The deep-sea fishing is not highly developed, most vessels even don’t go so far as the edge of the continental shelf. Coastal fishing is very important but is not systematically developed. Inland fisheries can be found in lakes, rivers, canals, and ponds. In western China, the fish resources have become virtually exhausted. The inland fisheries are less important than the sea fisheries.
"Although fisheries have a long history in China, they were kept in their original form and on a very limited scale until the end of the 1950s. In 1949, the total production of aquatic products in China was only 4.48  105 tons, of which the production of aquaculture was less than 1.0  105 tons and the production value was only 150 million yuan, accounting for 0.6% of the total agricultural production value [6]. From 1949 to 1957, the fisheries in China were in a stage of restoration and development....In 1950, the total production of the aquaculture industry was 7.6  104 tons in China, accounting for only 8.6% of the total aquatic products "
Hu (2021). Pages 64-65, 67
Fig. 34.1: Fisheries productions in China, 1950-1954
Source: Jia Jiansan and Chen Jiaxin (2001). Sea farming and sea ranching in China. https://www.fao.org/3/y2257e/y2257e04.htm#fnB3 Table 3
In 1950, very few of the existing 78 000 fishing boats were equipped with diesel engines and marine capture fisheries produced 546 000 mt only, from 1951 onwards the number of powered fishing vessels increased rapidly. However, sea farming/ranching production was still a small fraction of both marine capture fisheries and total productions (See Fig. 34.1). More than ten marine plants and animals (incl. four seaweed, five molluscs, one shrimp and one fish species) were traditionally farmed in China for the last few hundred years, however total annual production was small, amounting to less than 10 000 mt because of the low efficiency of the methods used and their dependence on wild seed and natural substrates.
The government gives financial assistance in the form of cash loans for the purchase of boats, tackle, etc. Fish markets are established in Qingdao, Shanghai, Yantai, Ninghsien, Wusih, and Yongjia. Freight charges for carriage are lowered, salt prices are reduced and storage facilities are made profitable. Robinson (1956) concludes "It is apparent that the industry, formerly unorganized, decentralized and unscientific, is being unified, centralized and modernized"
Robinson (1956). Page 166

The exclusive economic zone of the People's Republic of China is the area adjacent to and beyond the territorial sea of the People's Republic of China, extending as far as 200 nautical miles measured from the baseline that is used for calculating the breadth of the territorial sea.
Fig. 34.2: Catches by EEZ by the fleets of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage
Fig. 34.3: Catches by EEZ by commercial groups of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage
Fig. 34.4: Catches by EEZ by fishing sectors of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage
Fig. 34.5: Catches by EEZ by Gear by the fleets of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage

Besides fishery, sea farming and ranching exist in China. In 1952, for the first time kelp was grown and harvested on an artificial substrate built in the form of rafts. The Chinese government became increasingly interested in supporting research on marine fishery resources and several reports were published until the 1960s and issued in 1951, 2 directives "Temporary Fishery Bylaw for the Mid South Region" and the "Temporary Regulations on the Reproduction and Protection of Aquatic Plants and Animals in the Mid South Region". To improve the knowledge of fishery the first university of fisheries in China was founded in Shanghai 1952.
Fig. 34.2: Production of Japanese kelp, 1946 -1958
Source: Jia Jiansan and Chen Jiaxin (2001). Sea farming and sea ranching in China. https://www.fao.org/3/y2257e/y2257e04.htm#fnB3 Table 10
29-04-1954 Notice of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Internal Affairs on Strengthening the Relief Work for Fishermen
Fig. 34.3: Irrigation infrastructure in China 1949–1952
Source: Wen Tiejun (2021). Ten Crises The Political Economy of China’s Development (1949–2020). Page 89
*10,000 Renminbi **Enlarged irrigated areas 10,000 Mu ***Irrigation canals over 10,000 Mu
"During the restoration of the national economy, irrigation was a crucial component of infrastructural investment, second only to transportation and communication (...). During 1949–1952, the total investment in agriculture, forestry and irrigation was 1.03 billion RMB, 13.14% of the total infrastructure investment, most of which was used in irrigation construction."
Wen (2021). Page 89

Hu (2021). Pages 64-65, 67 [↩] [Cite]
Robinson (1956). Page 166 [↩] [Cite]
Wen (2021). Page 89 [↩] [Cite]
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