Part 8 The prelude to the Plenum of the first CPPCC and Mao Zedong’s ‘On the people’s democratic dictatorship'


Liu Shaoqi trip to SU
On June 21, 1949 two days after the end of the preperatory political consultative conference (See Part 7)
Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi in Moscow 1949
goes on a secret mission to Moscow to visit Stalin. The purpose of this trip was to ensure financial and technical aid from the SU. Liu Shaoqi also wanted to report on the conference. Another part of his mission was to learn about the construction and structure of government, economic and cultural commissions and mass organizations. He and his delegation visit several factories and collective farms. Stalin met with Liu Shaoqi 6 times, an unprecedented event. Stalin agrees with Liu Shaoqi about the CPPC's coalition policy: “The point of view that considers cooperation between you and the Chinese national bourgeoisie as the way of drawing them into the government is correct`
Document: 18-07-1949 Liu Shaoqi about his meeting with Stalin

When Liu Shaoqi leaves Moscow on August 14, 1949 he takes with him 220 advisors. They are specialists in the field of civics, economy, defense and propaganda. In 1949 the total amount of SU specialist in China is more than 600. Most of them are active in the Northeast.

On the people's dictatorship....

On the occasion of the 28th anniversary of the CCP Mao Zedong writes the essay
On the people’s democratic dictatorship
'On People's Democratic Dictatorship'
. He clearly defines the margins within which the Minzhu dangpai may collaborate with the CCP. The most important one is "We are the opposite of the political parties of the bourgeoisie. They are afraid to speak of the extinction of classes, state power and parties. We, on the contrary, declare openly that we are striving hard to create the very conditions which will bring about their extinction. The leadership of the Communist Party and the state power of the people's dictatorship are such conditions."
Document: 30-06-1949 Mao Zedong "On the people’s democratic dictatorship"
Mao wrote several works about the future of China and the CCP “The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party.” December 1939,”On New Democracy”, January 19, 1940. “On Coalition Government”, April 24, 1945
He also states that the new republic will be different: “There are bourgeois republics in foreign lands, but China cannot have a bourgeois republic because she is a country suffering under imperialist oppression. The only way is through a people's republic led by the working class. All other ways have been tried and failed.”
Document: 30-06-1949 Mao Zedong "On the people’s democratic dictatorship"
The people governs the new republic and Mao Zedong defines who are part of the people and what will happen to those who are not part of the people: "They are the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie. These classes, led by the working class and the Communist Party, unite to form their own state and elect their own government; they enforce their dictatorship over the running dogs of imperialism -- the landlord class and bureaucrat-bourgeoisie, as well as the representatives of those classes, the Kuomintang reactionaries and their accomplices -- suppress them, allow them only to behave themselves and not to be unruly in word or deed. If they speak or act in an unruly way, they will be promptly stopped and punished.”
Document: 30-06-1949 Mao Zedong "On the people’s democratic dictatorship"
Mao Zedong deviates from the traditional Marxist-Leninist definition, in which the middle and national bourgeoisie are not a part of the people. Several Asiatic communist parties in Burma, Indonesia and Malaysia follow his definition. Yang
Yang Kuisong(2007).The evolution of the Chinese Communist Party's policy on the bourgeoisie (1949–1952), Journal of Modern Chinese History, 1:1. Page 14
remarks “The CCP defined the bourgeoisie so as to include: capitalists in industry and commerce and many small businessmen and shop-owners; various celebrities as well many relatively wealthy university professors and professionals; the representatives of their interests and claims in various political parties and groups: and even some senior officers and officials who had defected from the Guomindang.”

The role of the Minzhu Dangpai....

The role of the minzhu dangpai will be limited in the future because: "The people's democratic dictatorship is based on the alliance of the working class, the peasantry and the urban petty bourgeoisie, and mainly on the alliance of the workers and the peasants, because these two classes comprise 80 to 90 per cent of China's population. These two classes are the main force in overthrowing imperialism and the Kuomintang reactionaries. The transition from New Democracy to socialism also depends mainly upon their alliance."
Document: 30-06-1949 Mao Zedong "On the people’s democratic dictatorship"
Mao Zedong attests that the minzhu dangpai for this moment has to play an important role: "To counter imperialist oppression and to raise her backward economy to a higher level, China must utilize all the factors of urban and rural capitalism that are beneficial and not harmful to the national economy and the people's livelihood; and we must unite with the national bourgeoisie in common struggle. Our present policy is to regulate capitalism, not to destroy it. But the national bourgeoisie cannot be the leader of the revolution, nor should it have the chief role in state power."
Document: 30-06-1949 Mao Zedong "On the people’s democratic dictatorship"
Already in 1939 Mao Zedong writes
The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party
'The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party'
“Except for the Communist Party, no political party (bourgeois or petty-bourgeois) is equal to the task of leading China's two great revolutions, the democratic and the socialist revolutions, to complete fulfilment.”
Document:December 1939 Mao Zedong "The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party"

Aftermath of the preparatory June Meeting....

Until the start of the September plenum the 6 workgroups meet regularly and the Common Program is thoroughly examined and 7 times amended, Liu Shaoqi calls the end result "…the Communist Party's 'minimum program'."
Cole Allan B.(1951). The united front in the new China. Report on China. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 277. Page 41

In the months after the preperatory political consultative conference, the minzhu dangpai and mass organizations hold meetings to elect the delegates for the plenum of the CPPCC. The plenum is scheduled for September 21, 1949.
Table 3
Participants by delegation of the CPPCC 21-09-1949
shows the distribution of the number of participants per minzhu dangpai. The number of delegates has risen from 510 to 662.
“Its 510 delegates will be drawn from 45 "representative units," to include: 14 political parties (142 delegates), most important of which will be the Communist party, the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee, and the Democratic League (16 delegates each); 9 non political regional groups (102 delegates), to be drawn from all parts of China; 6 army units (60 delegates), all of which, of course, are Communist; 16 people's organizations and groupings (206 delegates). This last group will comprise labor, peasant, women, youth, and student divisions, industrial and commercial circles, literary, scientific, educational, social science, and journalist groups, minority nationalities, "democratic overseas Chinese," and "democratic religious circles." D. Bodde “Peking dairies, a year of revolution” New York 1950 Pg 201



Literature Notes Documents...

3. Mao wrote several works about the future of China and the CCP “The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party.” December 1939,”On New Democracy”, January 19, 1940. “On Coalition Government”, April 24, 1945 Back
6.Yang Kuisong(2007).The evolution of the Chinese Communist Party's policy on the bourgeoisie (1949–1952), Journal of Modern Chinese History, 1:1. Page 14 Back
10.Cole Allan B.(1951). The united front in the new China. Report on China. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 277. Page 41 Back
12. “Its 510 delegates will be drawn from 45 "representative units," to include: 14 political parties (142 delegates), most important of which will be the Communist party, the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee, and the Democratic League (16 delegates each); 9 non political regional groups (102 delegates), to be drawn from all parts of China; 6 army units (60 delegates), all of which, of course, are Communist; 16 people's organizations and groupings (206 delegates). This last group will comprise labor, peasant, women, youth, and student divisions, industrial and commercial circles, literary, scientific, educational, social science, and journalist groups, minority nationalities, "democratic overseas Chinese," and "democratic religious circles." D. Bodde “Peking dairies, a year of revolution” New York 1950 Pg 201 Back

Documents....

Further reading

27-06-1949 Memorandum of Conversation between Stalin and CCP Delegation
04-07-1949 Excerpts report of Liu Shaoqi to Stalin
06-07-1949 Kovalev reports to Stalin
07-07-1949 Proclamation of the parties and bodies of the preparatory committee of the new political consultative conference in commemoration of the 12th anniversary of the outbreak of the war of resistance on 7 July
11-07-1949 From the Conversation with the Delegation of the CC CP of China in Moscow
. 00-07-1949 Stalin's Conversation with the Liu Shaoqi Delegation on the Importance of the Chinese Revolution and Creating a Union of Asian Communist Parties
Next Part 9: Characteristic of Minzhu dangpai and their members