Part 11: Decisions of the Plenum


The conference adopts all decisions of the 6 committees which were formed in June 1949 at the preparatory meeting. It is decided to make Beijing the capital of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). This decision is motivated: "The counterrevolutionary GMD set their capital in Nanking, and the reason was that they could rely on imperialism as Nanking is close to Shanghai, which was the central city for imperialism and comprador class to exploit the Chinese people. The PRC is a people’s country and it depends on the Chinese people alone. Hence, we do not have to set our capital in Nanking. Beiping had been the capital of China over seven hundred years. Politically, it is located in the old liberated area of northern China where the people’s power is enormous…. Culturally, it is a noted historic and cultural city with worldwide reputation and has been the cradle of new culture and thought since the May Fourth…. Therefore, we suggest that the PRC should set Beiping as the capital and rename it Beijing."
"Suggestion on the national flag, national capital, and calendar era" cited in Pan Tsung-Yi (2011). Constructing Tiananmen Square as a Realm of Memory: National Salvation, Revolutionary Tradition, and Political Modernity in Twentieth-Century China. Page 143

The designs of the national flag and national emblem and the text of the national hymn are approved.
The introduction of the Gregorian calendar is sanctioned and the decision to establish the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is made. Furthermore, is decided to build the Monument to the People’s Heroes on Tiananmen square.
Mao Zedong writes September 30, 1949 the draft for the insciption on the Monument to the People’s Heroes "Eternal glory to the People’s Heroes who have given their lives over the last three years in the People’s War of Liberation and the People’s Revolution! Eternal glory to the People’s Heroes who given their lives in the last thirty years in the People’s War of Liberation and the People’s Revolution! Eternal glory to the People’s Heroes, who, since the year of 1840, have given their lives in the many struggles to resist the enemy, domestic and foreign, to strive for the independence of the nation and the freedom and well-being of the people!" Cited in Pan Tsung-Yi (2011). Constructing Tiananmen Square as a Realm of Memory. Page 178
The delegates chose 180 members for the National Committee of the CPPCC. See Table
Table 5 national committee CPPCC
and Chart
chart 1 government structure
.
The organic law of the CPPCC stipulates that once in the 6 months the National Committee has to convene. In reality, the first National Committee has only met 4 times in 5 years of time.
First meeting: 09-10-1949, Second meeting: 14-06-1950 – 23-06-1950, Third meeting: 23-10-1951 – 01-11-1951,Fourth meeting: 4-02-1953 – 07-02-1953
The Congress adopts two laws, the organic law of the CPPCC and the organic law of the central government. Article 4 of the organic law of the CPPCC tells that difference of opinion is allowed "…it must, in accordance with the democratic principle of the minority submitting to the majority, abide by the resolutions, and must not violate them. However, it may reserve its divergent opinions for discussion at the following session. If it fundamentally disagrees with important resolutions, it is free to withdraw from the Chinese People's PCC upon request."
Document: 27-09-1949 The organic law of the CPPCC

The Congress also choses the members of the Central People’s Government Council (CGPC) See Table.
Table members of the CPGC
The head of the council is Mao Zedong, there are 6 vice chairmen; 3 CCP members, namely, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De and Gao Gang. The others are Soong Ching Ling (non-party), Li Jishen, member of the Rev. GMD and Zhang Lan CDL member. All four CCP adherents are Politburo members. 29 members and 2 alternative members of the Central Committee of the CCP are members of the CPGC.
Soviet ambassador Roshchin remarks in his diary how the real position of the non-CCP participants is. During the state banquet: : Li Jishen, … Zhang Lan, and Cheng Qian. Because the presence of these last three, Com. Mao Zedong avoided conversations on serious political matters."
Document:16-10-1949 Roshchin Memorandum of conversation with Mao Zedong
Already in January 1949 the CCP decides to restrict the access to certain documents and political decisions for the Minzhu Dangpai.
In December 1953 Gao Gang expressed: "He was also uncomfortable with the continuing existence of the 'democratic parties' in China. While some individual members of these parties could be trusted, said Gao, others were completely unreliable as were, in general, the parties themselves.29"
Wingrove Paul(2000) Gao gang and the Moscow connection: Some evidence from Russian sources. Page 97

The CPGC has the supreme power of the People's Republic of China and it consists of the Government Administration Council, the Revolutionary Military Committee, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate and from 1952 till 1954 the State Planning Commission.

"Suggestion on the national flag, national capital, and calendar era" cited in Pan Tsung-Yi (2011). Constructing Tiananmen Square as a Realm of Memory: National Salvation, Revolutionary Tradition, and Political Modernity in Twentieth-Century China. Page 143 Back
Mao Zedong writes September 30, 1949 the draft for the insciption on the Monument to the People’s Heroes "Eternal glory to the People’s Heroes who have given their lives over the last three years in the People’s War of Liberation and the People’s Revolution! Eternal glory to the People’s Heroes who given their lives in the last thirty years in the People’s War of Liberation and the People’s Revolution! Eternal glory to the People’s Heroes, who, since the year of 1840, have given their lives in the many struggles to resist the enemy, domestic and foreign, to strive for the independence of the nation and the freedom and well-being of the people!" Cited in Pan Tsung-Yi (2011). Constructing Tiananmen Square as a Realm of Memory. Page 178 Back
First meeting: 09-10-1949, Second meeting: 14-06-1950 – 23-06-1950, Third meeting: 23-10-1951 – 01-11-1951,Fourth meeting: 4-02-1953 – 07-02-1953 Back
Wingrove Paul(2000) Gao gang and the Moscow connection: Some evidence from Russian sources. Page 97 Back

Decisions....

Resolution on the Capital, Calendar, National Anthem and National Flag of the People's Republic of China
Lyrics of the national anthem
27-09-1949 The organic law of the central people's government
29-09-1949 The Common Program
The formation of the government