Part 5 The role of the Soviet Union in creating a political consultative conference

Mao Zedong visit in SU



December 5, 1949 Mao Zedong leaves Beijing by train

December 1949, Mao Zedong at the frontier

December 16, 1949 Mao Zedong arives in Moscow

December 16, 1949 Mao Zedong and Stalin first talk

December 21, 1949 Stalin's Birthday

December 21, 1949 Stalin's Birthday celebration in Bolshoi theater.
December 24, 1949 Mao Zedong and Stalin second talk

January 14, 1949 Mao Zedong visits Leningrad
January 22, 1950 Mao Zedong (Zhou Enlai) and Stalin third talk
January 24, 1950 Mao Zedong and Stalin fourth talk

February, 1949 Mao Zedong visits Kolchoz

February 14, 1950 Zhou Enlai and Vyshinskii signing of the treaty

Renmin Ribao article on visit

February 17, 1950 Mao Zedong leaves Moscow


During the 1940’s Mao Zedong is on a regular basis asking Stalin to be able to talk to him in person in Moscow. In April 1948 Mao is on the verge of leaving to the SU when at the last moment Stalin does not want to meet him. Later on in 1948 and in the beginning of 1949 Mao Zedong still tries several times to persuade Stalin in meeting him.
Document:09-01-1949 Cable from Mao Zedong to Stalin on visit to SU
Document: 10-01-1949 Cable from Stalin to Mao Zedong on visit to SU
He gets no for an answer. The main reason for the refusal is that Moscow has a diplomatic relation with the government of Jiang Jieshi and Stalin is not willing to offend the GMD government. These relations with the GMD government are not only diplomatic but the SU also sells weaponry.
Document: 14-08-1945 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
On December 9, 1949 The General Assembly of the UN wants to investigate Soviet violations of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance of 14 August 1945, and from Soviet violations of the Charter of the United Nations.
See Part 8.
Sheng
Sheng Michael M. (1998b). Mao’s ideology, personality, and the CCP’s foreign relations. In Li Hongshan & Hong Zhaohui (Eds.), Image, perception, and the making of U.S.-China relations. University press of America. Page 174
cites
Mikoyan
Anastas Mikoyan (1895-1978) Soviet Union. Minister of Foreign Trade (1938-1949) Politburo member (1935-1966) Vice-Premier of the Council of Ministers (1946-1953)
, the special envoy of Stalin, who gives an additional explanation: "Should the trip become public knowledge, Mikoyan said, Mao could have been "named a Moscow agent. This would have been detrimental to the prestige of the CCP and would have been exploited by the imperialists and the Chiang Kai-shek clique against the Chinese communists."

Planning a consultative conference....

Mao Zedong wants to consult Stalin on several topics. One of them is the matter of organizing a political consultative conference. Instead of personal contact Mao Zedong and Stalin correspond to each other about this theme. Mao Zedong is afraid the Americans intend to "…organize and send their lackeys so that they infiltrate the political consultative meeting and the democratic coalition government and could create an opposition bloc there and undermine from within the people’s revolutionary front in order that the revolution could not be consistently implemented."
Document: 30-12-1948 Mao Zedong informs Stalin on the present situation
Stalin agrees with Mao and proposes to him to organize immediately a political consultative conference after the takeover of Beijing, then the GMD will be incapable of creating their own political consultative conference. Mao Zedong answers Stalin that the moment has not yet arrived to establish a political consultative conference. He wants to wait until Nanjing, Wuhan or Shanghai is firmly in the hands of the PLA. Mao is not afraid the minzhu dangpai will join an initiative of the GMD. "At the present time the majority of the democratic politicians are in our areas, they themselves want to be there, and [come] to us. Whereas before we invited many but they did not go, now after the victories of our armies, it is enough to give them the smallest hint, and they immediately come."
Document: 10-01-1949 Mao Zedong informs Stalin on the present situation

This opinion of Mao Zedong appears to be right. On January 22, 1949 some 53 members of the CDL and other political persons publicly declare to support the CCP and condemn the foreign policy of the US. Mao Zedong also states that several GMD generals, like
Bai Chongxi
Bai Chongxi (1893-1966) He was the first defense minister of the Republic of China from 1946 to 1948. Bai's forces were the last ones to leave the mainland for Hainan Island and eventually to Taiwan
,
Tan [Tang] Enbo
Tang Enbo (1898-1954) In January 1949, Chen Yi (1883-1950)thought the KMT position was untenable, so to rescue the 18 million residents of the Nanjing-Shanghai-Hangzhou region from a meaningless war, he attempted to defect to the Chinese Communist Party. Along with his defection, he attempted to induce the garrison military commander Tang Enbo to surrender to the Communist Party. Tang choses the side of Jiang and betrays Chen Yi (GMD). Chen Yi is sentenced to death in Taipei in 1950. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chen_Yi_(Kuomintang)
and
Liu Ruming
Liu Ruming (1895-1975) Despite contacts with the communists. He decides to go to Taiwan in 1949
openly or secretly contacted the PLA in order to surrender. (However all 3 of them eventually fled to Taiwan.)
As an alternative of receiving Mao Zedong in Moscow, Stalin sends his special envoy Mikoyan on a secret mission to the headquarters of the CCP in Xibaipo. He arrives on January 30, 1949 and has a number of talks with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai and other Politburo members.
On January 30 and February 4, 1949 they have extensive talks about the establishment of a coalition government and about the formation of a preparatory committee for the founding of a political consultative conference. Mao Zedong shows Mikoyan a list of 22 political and social organizations which are eligible for an invitation.
1. CCP 2. PLA 3. The Revolutionary Committee of the GuoMinDang 4. The Union to advance Democracy in China 5. The Democratic League of China 6. The Association for Saving the Motherland 7. The Third Party (Democratic Party of Workers and Peasants) 8. The Union to Advance Democracy in Shanghai 9. The Society for the Democratic Transformation of China 10. The Congress of Professional Unions of China 11. The Peasants’ Union of China 12. The Youth Organization of China 13. The Student Union of China 14. The All-China Women’s Union 15. The Association of Cultural Workers of China 16. The Association of the Industrial Enterprises of Shanghai 17. The Union of Workers in Education 18. Representatives of non-party figures (Guo Moruo) 19. Representatives of the national minorities 20. Representatives of the Chinese emigrants, living in South-East Asia (Chen Jiageng, etc.) 21. Representatives of the Chinese emigrants living in the USA 22. The Association for the Study of Sun Yatsen. The membership of the preparatory commission will be composed of 3-4 people, delegated from each of the aforementioned groups, but irrespective of the number of delegates each organization will have only one vote. The communists will have 9 people on the commission, and 5 sympathizers. The rest of the seats are assigned to 4 centrists and 5 democrats. In the PCM 2/3 of the places will belong to the CCP. The commission will convene in the beginning of the month of March, prepare the composition of the political consultative meeting and the agenda of its sessions. CWIHP 16pg.147.
According to Ivanov
Ivanov P. (1992). The miscellany of China’s political parties in China from 1945-1950. In Roger B. Jeans (Eds.), Roads not taken- The struggle of opposition parties in twentieth century China. Boulder west view press. Page 171
there are about 100 political groups active in the period between 1945 and 1949. Stalin constantly urges the CCP to form a coalition government as soon as possible, but "Before creating a government, one should comprehensively clear the liberated territory from hostile elements, internal and foreign, strengthen one’s cadres, bring forces and military supplies to the frontlines of the People’s Liberation Army. This will require time. How much time this will require is something that the Chinese comrades must determine for themselves."
Document: 00-02-1949 Stalin answers Mikoyan on questions raised by Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong replies on another occassion: "Now we decided to form a government in the months of August-September of this year. All the preparatory work must be completed before the middle of the month of August. In the middle or in the second half of the month of August one can call the political consultative meeting and form the government.
Document: 14-06-1949 Mao Zedong informs Stalin on the question of the creation of a government

In the same cable Mao Zedong tells Stalin, he is convinced the minzhu dangpai will eventually support the CCP although a lot of persuasion is needed and he tells Stalin the total number of delegates can be expanded to 500.

Literature Notes Documents...

4. On December 9, 1949 The General Assembly of the UN wants to investigate Soviet violations of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance of 14 August 1945, and from Soviet violations of the Charter of the United Nations. See Further reading Back
5. Sheng Michael M. (1998b). Mao’s ideology, personality, and the CCP’s foreign relations. In Li Hongshan & Hong Zhaohui (Eds.), Image, perception, and the making of U.S.-China relations. University press of America. Page 174 Back
8. 1. CCP 2. PLA 3. The Revolutionary Committee of the GuoMinDang 4. The Union to advance Democracy in China 5. The Democratic League of China 6. The Association for Saving the Motherland 7. The Third Party (Democratic Party of Workers and Peasants) 8. The Union to Advance Democracy in Shanghai 9. The Society for the Democratic Transformation of China 10. The Congress of Professional Unions of China 11. The Peasants’ Union of China 12. The Youth Organization of China 13. The Student Union of China 14. The All-China Women’s Union 15. The Association of Cultural Workers of China 16. The Association of the Industrial Enterprises of Shanghai 17. The Union of Workers in Education 18. Representatives of non-party figures (Guo Moruo) 19. Representatives of the national minorities 20. Representatives of the Chinese emigrants, living in South-East Asia (Chen Jiageng, etc.) 21. Representatives of the Chinese emigrants living in the USA 22. The Association for the Study of Sun Yatsen. The membership of the preparatory commission will be composed of 3-4 people, delegated from each of the aforementioned groups, but irrespective of the number of delegates each organization will have only one vote. The communists will have 9 people on the commission, and 5 sympathizers. The rest of the seats are assigned to 4 centrists and 5 democrats. In the PCM 2/3 of the places will belong to the CCP. The commission will convene in the beginning of the month of March, prepare the composition of the political consultative meeting and the agenda of its sessions. CWIHP 16pg.147. Back
9. Ivanov P. (1992). The miscellany of China’s political parties in China from 1945-1950. In Roger B. Jeans (Eds.), Roads not taken- The struggle of opposition parties in twentieth century China. Boulder west view press. Page 171 Back

Further Reading
Continue Part 6: Second plenum of the 7th Central Committee of the CCP